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Unit 10: Flexibility Training

Chapter 10 Assignment Questions

1

Define "flexibility".

2

Explain the role of the sarcomere inflexibility.

3

List and explain the three inhibitory proprioceptors and their role in flexibility.

4

List four standardized tests to assess flexibility.

5

Explain the constraining factors that may limit flexibility.

6

Explain the benefits of improving range of motion and surrounding musculature. Provide an example at a specific joint.

7

What happens to your hip flexors when sitting for long periods of time? How does this affect your spine?

8

List and explain the three areas relative to the specificity of flexibility training.

9

How does body temperature play a role with effective stretching?

10

For the following, provide the definition, appropriate length of time to perform each stretch and when each type of stretch should be performed within a single training session:

11

Define reciprocal innervation:

12

Which four factors should you consider when incorporating higher levels of a range of motion into your programming?

13

Provide the appropriate guidelines for foam rolling.

14

What is the appropriate direction to foam roll in terms of muscle origin and insertion?

15

How can weight training result in a loss of flexibility?

16

Provide several examples of dangerous exercises that your clients should avoid.

17

Explain the difference between the active and passive range of motion. What does each accomplish?

Unit 10 Assignment Answers

The degree to which joints can move efficiently and safely within a flexion and extension range.

A structural unit of a myofibril in striated muscle, consisting of a dark band and the nearer.

● Golgi tendon organ causes the motor cortex of the brain to “shut off” muscle contraction
● Pacinian corpuscles are sensitive to quick movement and deep pressure.
● The muscle spindle a specialized muscle fiber which detects excessive stretch within the muscle.

● Sit and reach
● Hip flexor test
● Shoulder flexibility
● Trunk extension

  • Genetic predisposition Age
  • History of injury
  • Muscle size due to the training effect Fascial binding
  • Nature of connective tissue about the joint

Increased ROM can increase force production and performance as well as reduce injury potential. an example is increasing ROM of the hamstring group in sprinters.

Hip flexors can be shortened by sitting

  • Joint specificity: flexibility training can be prioritized toward joints that are most in need
  • Position and speed specificity: stretching exercises must be very similar in form and speed to the skill you are trying to improve.
  • Resistance training specificity: Two key points are to perform resistance exercises through the involved joint’s full ROM and to work antagonist pairs of muscles equally.

Body temperature increases the ductility of muscles to be stretched

● Static stretching: 20-sec
● Dynamic stretching: instantaneous
● PNF stretching: 10-sec
● Active stretching: 15-sec
● Passive (or relaxed) stretching: 20-sec
● Isometric stretching: 15-sec tension, 20 sec-relax

The contraction of a muscle or set of muscles (as of a joint) is accompanied by the simultaneous inhibition of an antagonistic muscle or set of muscles.

1. Connective tissue restrictions

2. Bone configurations at the joint

3. Contact of muscle masses of adjacent segments

4. Strength of the muscles over the full ROM

You simply take the foam roller and slowly roll it across the muscle from which you want to release adhesions and knots.

Rolling from the proximal to the distal attachment of a muscle.

By not using the full ROM with heavy resistance

● Straight-leg toe touch
● Seated toe touch
● Hurdler stretch

Passive flexibility refers to the ROM available when an outside force (e.g., gravity, momentum, another body part, or another person) is the causative force.
In active stretching, the muscles that are actively involved do so primarily in the eccentric contraction.

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