ISSA nutritionist MVP package example

Chapter 3: Metabolism and Energy Balance

Chapter three assignments:


What are calories/kilocalories?


How do the calorie yields look for each of the nutritional sources we could take in?


Discuss energy intake and energy expenditure. What are the many aspects that go into the calculation of energy expenditure?


What are the formulas used to calculate RMR?


We have two forms of energy balance that we are likely to be in. What are these two types? How does it look when we gain weight over time?


What is the currency of cellular energy?


Give a thorough overview the three central energy systems that we use in our bodies.


What are the times each energy system is active as the primary fuel source?


What are the inputs needed for the energy systems to work? What is the ATP production that we get from the various types of fuel?

We include only the most important questions so that the huge ISSA Nutritionist textbook does not completely overwhelm you.

Chapter 3 assignment answers:

As far as nutrition goes, a calorie is the amount of energy that is needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius at a pressure of 1 atmosphere. Calories are going to be provided by macronutrients, micronutrients, vitamins, and minerals that we consume through our diet. We technically write the calories we use as a kilocalorie. But the general population knows this simply as a calorie.

Calorie amount based on the macronutrient

– Nutritional carbohydrates have a kilocalorie yield of 4 per gram.

– Nutritional protein has a kilocalorie yield of 4 per gram.

– Nutritional fats have a kilocalorie yield of 9 per gram.

– Stored fats from carbohydrate sources have a kilocalorie yield of 3.27 per gram.

– Alcohol has a kilocalorie yield of 7 for every gram.

Energy intake is the total calories taken in during a 24 hour period. The simple observations that can be made for a fitness and nutrition specialist is the gain or loss in lean muscle mass. If someone is gaining weight over time, they are consuming an excess of calories compared to their expended ones. And the opposite is true when someone is consuming too few calories. They will lose weight.

Energy expenditure has more going into it than energy intake. This is also measured in multiple ways. The aspects going into the energy expenditure are the RMR, the thermic effect of food, physical activity, and growth. These are all important aspects occurring all of the time in the body.

RMR formulas:

i. Females: RMR = 248 x weight (0.4356) – (5.09 x age)

ii. Males: RMR = 293 x weight (0.4330) – (5.92 x age)

An energy balance is basically looking at are calories in and calories out. That is the most basic way to put it. The calories in is the food we take in, and the calories out is everything going into our energy expenditure from the previous question. Creating an energy balance involves a lot more than simply managing your weight. We have two forms of energy balance we can be in. a positive energy balance is one where more energy is being consumed than is being expended. A negative energy balance is the opposite of that, where there is more energy being expended than is being consumed. Even though that is true, research shows that people who gain weight in the long term actually have periods of plateaus that show up. So, the person will gain weight, and then plateau for some time period, and then go back to gaining weight. It only takes small changes to help stop the rate of weight gain.

The currency of cellular energy is actually the molecule ATP, or adenosine triphosphate. Cellular metabolism is actually a series of reactions where the goal is for the nutrients to reach the state of being ATP. Adenine is made up of adenine and ribose. This adenine is then attached to three phosphates and the two bonds between the three phosphates will store and release energy.

The phosphagen system is the first system. This is the combination of phosphocreatine and the muscle’s stored ATP. The energy system is the first one that kicks in. it provides energy for the body in high-intensity situations and does not last as long as other systems. As the muscle tissue continues to use phosphocreatine, it runs out, and the glycolysis systems kicks in. ATP is now made for the body using glucose. This starts around seven seconds into the run, and it is the second anaerobic process. Neither of the last two require the presence of oxygen. The last energy system is the oxidative system which uses fats and oxygen to make energy for the body. This is the aerobic metabolism, and it is the primary fuel source during long activities.

The phosphagen system provides a near-instant source of energy and this lasts up to 30 seconds.

The aerobic glycolysis system kicks in at around 7 seconds and takes over as the main system after the 30 seconds of the phosphocreatine system. The system lasts 2- 3 minutes.

After the glycolysis we have the oxidative system taking over for the remainder of the time in cardio.

When the fuel type is glucose, we will donate 2 pyruvate and 6 carbons total, and this will result in 30 – 32 ATP.

When the fuel type is fatty acids, we will donate 1 palmitic acid and 16 carbons, and this will result in 106 ATP.

When the fuel type is lactate, we will be donating a lactate and 6 carbons, and we will have an end result of 30 – 32 ATP.

When the fuel type is an amino acid, we will be donating amino acids and 2 carbons, and we will have an end result in 22 ATP.

You didn’t think we were going to leave you hanging without the answers, did you? Use these answers to double-check your own. Or, use them as a cram guide before the exam.

chapter 3 mnemonics:

At first, mnemonics may seem like a strange way to study. But studies have shown time and time again that it is the best way to memorize information in a sequence. The goal is to make them as weird, controversial or gross as possible. Trust me, you are First Response might be “Ewwwww”, but you will never forget them. Practice what you learned in the fill in the blank section below.

let’s practice one. What are the 5 components of energy out?



      Audio Study Guide

      And for audio learners, we’ve got you covered as well. These are great to study while you are driving or hands-free.  It is the same as the written study guide. Short and sweet. We don’t want you falling asleep from an overload of long boring lectures.

      Our Intelligent flashcards: Click a card

      While using our intelligent flashcards, you will rate yourself on how well you know each card from 1 (pink) to 5 (blue). Our intelligent system will start showing you you’re difficult cards frequently,  and you’re easy cards only once in a while. This will save you hours of time by focusing on your weak areas. 615 flashcards total.

      Practice Exam Process

      1 issa test
      2 issa test

      We have 3 complete (100 questions) ISSA Nutritionist practice exams. These exams were created to feel exactly like the real exam.

      Check the review results section to see the questions you got wrong.

      In the “review results” section you will be able to see all the questions you got wrong as well as the correct answer.

      Additional MVP study materials and features

      ISSA Study Blueprint

      The study blueprint contains a 16 week study plan, an 8 week plan, a 4 week plan and a 2 week plan (AKA the cram plan). I help you decide which plan is right for you and show you exactly what to study (and how) for that time frame. This blueprint is essential if you are last second cramming and will give you the best chance to pass the exam

      ISSA Cheat Sheet

      The ISSA cheat sheet contains the most important information that you need to focus on right before the exam. This all fits on one sheet of paper and can be easily printed out and used the night before the test and as you are on your way to take it. This drastically helps with last-second retention of information.

      100% Exam Pass Guarantee

      Our ISSA Nutritionist MVP study package comes with an exam pass guarantee. It’s straightforward, if you somehow fail the test after using our study materials, we will refund 100% of your money. Period. That’s how confident we are in our study materials.

      Flash Sale: Save 50% on the ISSA Nutrtitionist + ISSA CPT MVP Package

      See if our exam pass guarantee study system is right for you!


      Try The CSCS MVP For Free 🤓

      See if our exam pass guarantee study system is right for you!


      Try The ACSM MVP For Free 🤓

      See if our exam pass guarantee study system is right for you!


      Try The ACE MVP For Free 🤓

      See if our exam pass guarantee study system is right for you!


      Try The NASM MVP For Free 🤓

      See if our exam pass guarantee study system is right for you!


      Try The ISSA MVP for free 🤓

      Find out if our study system is right for you!


      Try the NSCA MVP for free 🤓