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Chapter 5: Energy Balance and Metabolism

Chapter 5 assignments:


What is metabolism? What is the primary source of energy? Also, discuss TDEE.


Define and give the basics for ATP.


Discuss how to maintain energy balance along with the factors of it. Detail the components that exist for energy expenditure.


What are METs and how do we use them?


What environmental factors influence energy intake?


List and describe the 3 major hormones involved in the balance of energy and metabolism.


How can we teach our clients to practice mindful eating?


What three energy systems do we use? Detail each one. For how long do we see those systems as the primary fuel source?

We include only the most important questions so that the huge NASM CNC textbook does not completely overwhelm you.

Chapter 5 assignment answers:

Metabolism is defined by the NASM as the chemical process through which all of the living organisms do and this process provides them with the energy they need to function. This is one of the main features that will distinguish a living organism from one that is non-living. Producing energy via metabolism will give the organism constant supplies of energy that are required for the sustenance of life on earth for rest and activity. The main source of energy for all life is through the sun first and foremost. The sun is what gives way to photosynthesis for the plants, which then, through a long series of events, will lead that energy to us.

TDEE is the total daily energy expenditure. This is defined as the estimated calorie needs per day that a person needs, and we will base this calculation on their sex, age, and their level of physical activity. The base calculation that most people go off of is 2,000 calories per day for someone, but this can obviously vary greatly depending on many factors. This TDEE is very important to keep in mind as we will be using this for making diet programs and calculations much later in the book. This will play a role as one of the first steps after setting goals for clients, so we will revisit this much later into the book after going through the macro and micronutrients and such.

ATP is the shortened form of adenosine triphosphate. This is the chemical compound that gives energy to the drive of the muscle contractions, nerve impulses, and the many other varieties of chemical reactions taking place throughout the complicated human lifespan. The molecules of ATP consist of one adenosine molecule that is bonded to three additional phosphate groups and these are actually going to be present within all living tissues. If you break one phosphate link, this is going to provide energy to fuel the physiological processes. So, the actually breaking of the phosphate is the chemical action that serves to give us energy, not just the molecule alone.

The balance of energy is kept throughout the day through the things that we are drinking and eating, and then subtracted by the calories and energy that we burn when we are digesting and processing these foods taken in, as well as the non-exercise thermogenesis and calories lost when we exercise or perform any other type of activity. The term “Energy In” represents the energy taken in within a certain time period. The other term “Energy Out” represents the energy that we have expended. It is very important to know how we are able to manipulate both of these two terms so that we can lose weight, maintain weight, or even gain weight. The individual factors here include genetics, demographics, and psychology. The behavioral setting factors include home, school, and worksites. The sectors that influence us are the government, educational level, and the media influences. The last factor are going to be the social norms and values. And these are all of the factors we take in when considering the maintenance of energy balance. The four component that we have for energy expenditure are:

1. The Thermic effect of activity: this represents 15 – 30%

2. The thermic effect of feeding: this represents 10%

3. The Resting Metabolic rate: this is 60 – 75% of energy expenditure.

MET is going to stand for metabolic equivalent. We often use this term for an easier way of looking at resting metabolic rate and energy expenditure during activity. 1 MET is equal to 3.5 mL of O2/kg/min. We will often see and use these when prescribing exercise training intensities. 1 MET is typically considered to be the equivalent of sitting on the couch and watching television. If we were to get up and walk around at about 1.7 mph, we would see the MET level climb to about 2.3 METS. Slowly biking would then see us at 3 METs. And then if we got off the bike and jumped rope, this could be about 10 METs. So, it varies depending on the intensity of activity. The more intense, the more METs you will be working at.

The environmental factors we look at that affect Energy Intake:

a. Prices

b. Marketing

c. Food and drink preferences for individuals

d. Demand side effects

e. Access to the foods and drinks

f. Availability of foods and drinks

g. And lastly, the desirability of foods and drinks

Thyroid hormone is a hormone that helps to regulate our metabolism and control the essential steps for growth and development of our bodies. This hormone stimulates the metabolism by increasing the consumption of oxygen and the rate of breaking down ATP. It also serves as a way to stimulate both lipogenesis and lipolysis.

Cortisol is a hormone that is produced within our adrenal glands and we release it as a response to some stress in the body. The adrenal glands make many types of hormones

and cortisol is within one of those classes called a glucocorticoid. This works to increase the blood glucose levels rapidly. So, all in all, it is going to work opposite of insulin to keep the levels of blood glucose higher. It can also serve to release energy from fat we store in the body.

Testosterone is a hormone that plays a major role in digesting the carbs, proteins, and fats in the body. This hormone has a major role in the overall management of body fat and muscle mass. This hormone is higher in men than women, hence the obvious difference in the size of their bodies.

Some mindful eating techniques to remember:

a. Do not skip any meals

b. Eat slower

c. Eat modest portions instead of when you know it is too much

d. Do not let your emotions control eating habits

e. Eat when you are hungry, not just when you want to

f. Engage all of your senses when you eat

g. Savor small bites of food so you take time to enjoy it

h. Chew your food thoroughly to take time and help the digestion proces

We make use of three main energy systems within the body.

a. ATP – PC is the first of the energy pathways to go over since it is the first one we use during activity. This is also known as the phosphagen system. Here we have energy being released form the phosphocreatine breakdown and then immediate energy is available and used. The phosphate is then used for making more ATP. We store this phosphocreatine within the muscles in a limited supply. This supply we keep in our body is only good for about 10 to 15 seconds of activity. This energy system and phosphocreatine levels will fatigue very quickly and then the body will resort to other energy systems to take over. The next of which is the glycolytic system

b. Glycolysis is known as the anaerobic or the glycolytic system. This take place immediately following the ATP – PC system. The main difference here is going to be the system providing its rapid supply of ATP for around 1 – 2 minutes of activity as compared to the mere seconds we have in the ATP – PC system. This is going to be dominant in the short and intense exercise routines once the ATP – PC is gone. It is important to note here that there is never only one system providing all of the energy, but instead one slowly taking over, and on slowly leaving. The same is going to be true for the transition to the third option for energy and the one after glycolysis. This is the oxidative system.

c. Oxidative is another way to say that this energy system is going to rely on the use of oxygen to make ATP for the body. This is the third system and it comes right after the glycolytic system. This one takes a while to get started, but once it is going, it will have the largest reserves for providing energy to the body. That is because it makes use of fat and carbs for providing energy. This system can typically provide the remaining 60 – 90 minutes of activity that is stored via

energy stores in the body. Once the system has run out, we resort to the use of proteins and other molecules as a last resort.

You didn’t think we were going to leave you hanging without the answers, did you? Use these answers to double-check your own. Or, use them as a cram guide before the exam.

chapter 5 mnemonics:

At first, mnemonics may seem like a strange way to study. But studies have shown time and time again that it is the best way to memorize information in a sequence. The goal is to make them as weird, controversial or gross as possible. Trust me, you are First Response might be “Ewwwww”, but you will never forget them. Practice what you learned in the fill in the blank section below.

let’s practice one. What are the components of energy out?



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