Domain 1: Client Relations and Behavioral Coaching
Section1. Communication Components
1. List five tips that can enhance the quality of communication.
– Use of appropriate body language – Provide an explanation of important concepts – Show empathy and compassion – Use positive reinforcement – Use positive greeting protocols (smile, handshake. hello)
2. Describe non-verbal communication and how it takes effect.
Visual and auditory expressions of intent and feeling that exist outside of written or spoken speech.
3. Define “active listening”.
Practicing listening as an act of genuine interest.
4. Describe the differences between open-ended and closed-ended questions.
Open-ended questions allow the questioned party to elaborate with detail. Close-ended questions only require a yes or no answer.
5. Define “reflecting” with regards to trainer-client communication
Relaying back your interpretation of what the client has communicated.
6. Define “summarizing” with regards to trainer-client communication
Making brief reflections of what has been communicated to indicate that information has been taken on board.
Section2. SMART Goals
1. Complete the SMART Goals table below.
S Specific M Measurable A Attainable R Realistic T Timely
Section3. Goal Expectation Management
1. List eight important considerations in goal expectation management.
1. Understand the client’s motivations 2. Hone in and clarify vague statements like “I want to get fit” or “I want to look better” 3. Allow clients to verbalize their goals for more clarity 4. Identify unrealistic outcomes 5. Set goals based on the SMART principles 6. Be able to contrast between product and progress based goals 7. Be aware that progress occurs at different rates for different clients 8. Identify how and when each client’s goals will be reassessed and revisited
Section4. Behavior Change Strategies
1. Label the “stages of change” diagram below.
Try to Label think of the stages without seeing the chart below, first.
2. What are the four forms of support a trainer can implement?
– Instrumental support in the form of practical applications and infrastructure – Emotional support in the form of positive psychological reinforcement and encouragement – Informational support in the form of facts and evidence that provide direction and indicate efficacy and reliability – Companionship support in the form of positive social associations such as family and close friends
Section5. Psychological Response to Exercise
1. List four potential psychological benefits of exercise.
– Promotes positive mood – Improves the quality and quantity of sleep – Reduces stress – Reduces indicators and risk factors of anxiety and depression
Section6. Barriers to Behavior Change
1. List five common barriers to successful behavioral change.
– Time constraints – Setting unrealistic goals – Inadequate social support – Social anxiety and low self-esteem, Convenience or addictiveness of current behavioral patterns
Section7. Client Expectation Management
1. What key topics should be discussed at the end of each initial session with a new client?
– If the client is ready to begin or has any further questions/queries – The social dynamics, etiquette, and training culture of the facility – Dress code – The potential outcomes of interactions with other clients/members
Domain 2: Basic and Applied Sciences and Nutritional Concepts
Section 1. The Nervous System
1. Define the following components of the nervous system.
Golgi Tendon Organ – GTOs are specialized sensory receptors located at the point where skeletal muscle fibers insert into the tendons of skeletal muscle. Muscle Spindle – Muscle Spindles are sensory receptors within muscles that run parallel to the muscle fibers and are sensitive to change in muscle length and rate of length change . The Charts below are found in chapter 5 in the 7th edition. These figures are found in lesson 1 of chapter 5 in the 7th edition text.
2. Define the 3 main functions of the nervous system.
The three primary functions of the nervous system include sensory, integrative, and motor functions. Sensory Function is the ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either the internal or external environment. Integrative Function is the ability of the CNS to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produces an appropriate response. Motor Function is then the body’s response (via the efferent pathway) to that integrated sensory information, such as causing a muscle to contract when stretched too far or changing one’s walking pattern when transitioning from walking on a sidewalk to walking in the sand. These figures can be found throughout lesson 1 of chapter 5 in the 7th edition text.
Section 2. The Muscular System
1. Define the following components of the muscular system.
Tendons Connective tissue bridging muscles to the skeleton Fascia Connective tissue that consists of a tough fibrous membrane that holds muscle tissue together Fascicles Muscle fiber units bundled within a single muscle Muscle fiber Cylindrical cells that produce and resist force through mechanical contraction allowing organisms to move and reposition Sarcomere The muscle fiber’s fundamental contractile unit consisting of protein filaments actin and myosin Sliding filament theory That contraction of muscles takes place through the sliding of actin and myosin Type I (slow-twitch) muscle tissue Predominantly aerobic muscle fibers responsible for sustained focused contractions and have a relatively higher mitochondrial count for that reason Type II (fast-twitch) muscle tissue More anaerobic, these fibers are tasked with short, explosive contractions aimed at generating power and speed Motor unit The smallest functional unit of a muscle and motor unit system Neural activation Stimulation of motor units through delivery of mild impulse. Also known as warming up. Neurotransmitters A signaling chemical release at the end of nerve synapses used to transfer impulses across nerve junctions or to muscle fibers
2. Label this cross-section of a muscle.
The chart is found in lesson 4 of chapter 5 in the 7th edition.
3. Define the following muscle systems.
Local stabilization system Muscle system connected directly to vertebrae Global stabilization system Muscle system that transfer force between the upper and lower body, thus providing full-body stability Movement system All organs and structures whose collective function brings about mobility and biomechanical activity These figures are found throughout lesson 4 of chapter 5 in the 7th edition text.
Section3. The Skeletal System
1. Label this diagram of the spine.
These diagrams are found throughout chapter 5, lesson 2.
2. Define joints and know the following components of the skeletal system.
Joints are the sites where two bones meet and movement occurs as a result of muscle contraction. These images are found throughout lesson 2 of chapter 5 in the 7th edition.
1. Define the following components of the joint system.
Skeletal system functions Structural integrity and support, protection of vital organs, mobility, anchoring of organs, production of blood and endocrine hormones Non-synovial joints Maintains structural integrity by joining bone segments not required to perform the movement Synovial Joints Joints that allow smooth movement between two or more adjacent bones Major motion types Spin, slide, and roll Hinge Joint Sagittal plane. E.g. elbows and knees Ball-and-socket Joint Full axis mobility. E.g. Pelvic and shoulder girdle Arthrokinematics The science of joint motion
Section4. The Endocrine System
1. Define the following components of the endocrine system.
Endocrine system The system responsible for the production and secretion of hormones Testosterone Anabolic male sex hormone Estrogen Female sex hormone Growth hormone Anabolic tissue growth hormone Insulin Energy and micronutrient regulation hormone
Section5. The Cardio-respiratory System
1. Define the following.
Cardiorespiratory system System comprising of the heart & blood vessels (circulatory) and lungs (respiratory) Cardiovascular system The heart and blood vessels Respiratory system Lungs and breathing system
2. Define the following.
Cardiac muscle Involuntary heart muscle, relatively more rigid than skeletal muscle Right atrium Gathers low oxygen blood Left atrium Gathers oxygenated blood from the lungs Sinoatrial (SA) node Myocyte clusters that generate electrical impulses that determine heart rhythm Right ventricle Pumps low oxygen blood to lungs Left ventricle Pumps oxygen-rich blood through the body Arteries Vessels for oxygenated blood Veins Vessels for deoxygenated blood Arterioles Small branches of arteries Capillaries Smallest blood vessel units. Chemical exchange sites Venules Smallest branches of veins Stroke volume The volume of blood circulated with each pump Heart rate The frequency of heartbeats per minute Cardiac output Amount of blood pumped per minute
3. Define the following components of the respiratory system.
Inspiration Moving air into the lungs through muscular contractions Primary inspiratory muscles External intercostals and diaphragm Secondary inspiratory muscles scalenes, sternocleidomastoid and pectoralis minor Expiration Pushing air out of lungs through muscular contraction Expiratory muscles Abdominals and internal intercostals Resting oxygen consumption (VO2) Amounts to 3.5ml/min/kg of body mass and is the equivalent of 1 metabolic equivalent (MET) Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) Maximum oxygen consumption rate at peak exercise intensity Dysfunctional breathing Irregular breathing patterns characteristic of stress and anxiety
4. Describe the training effects of cardiorespiratory exercise.
These diagrams are found throughout lesson 1 of chapter 6 in the 7th edition text.
6. What are the 3 main functions of blood?
Transport Oxygen, nutrients, and hormones Regulation Temperature, fluid balance, pH Protection Immune system, clotting
Section6. Bioenergetics and Exercise Metabolism
1. Define the following bioenergetic concepts.
Bioenergetics The science of energy in the body Metabolism The usage cycle of nutrients and their conversion into energy, body components, and waste materials through normal life function Aerobic Using oxygen to drive metabolic function Anaerobic Metabolic activity with an absence of oxygen Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) A molecule used to transfer and store energy in cells Anaerobic threshold The point at which energy demand surpasses oxu=ygen supply Excess post oxygen consumption(EPOC) Post-exercise elevated metabolic activity
2. List the components and functions of the following energy systems.
Oxidative Aerobic glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, Long-term energy Glycolysis Anaerobic, Moderate-to-high intensity, lasts up to 30-50 seconds ATP-PC Anaerobic, High-intensity, Lasts up to 10-15 seconds
Section7. Fundamentals of Biomechanics
1. Define “Biomechanics”.
The science concerning the generation, transfer, and resistance of mechanical force by the musculoskeletal system and the effects produced.
2. Define “Force”.
A transfer of energy that acts on a physical body causing it to change its direction and velocity.
3. Define “Torque”
A rotational force acting about a fixed axis.
4. Define “Lever“.
A rigid bar that applies torque about a fixed pivot or fulcrum.
5. Describe the 3 classes of levers.
1st class The fulcrum in the center 2nd class Resistance in the center 3rd class Effort in the center
Section8. Anatomic locations
1. Describe the following anatomic locations
Superior Above Inferior Below Proximal Closest to a reference point Distal Furthest from a reference point Anterior front Posterior behind Medial central Lateral On either side Contralateral Opposite sides Ipsilateral Same side
2. Define the following planes of motion and give examples of where they act.
The planes of motions to know are the Frontal, Sagittal, and the Transverse.
Flexion Muscles shorten Extension Muscles lengthen Plantar flexion extension about the ankle joint Dorsiflexion Flexion about the ankle joint Abduction Extension away from the midline Adduction Flexion towards the midline Horizontal abduction Abduction along the transverse plane Internal rotation Joint rotation towards the midline External rotation Joint rotation away from the midline
Section10. Principles of Human Movement Science
1. Define the following muscle actions
Concentric Muscle shortens with contraction (effort>resistance) Eccentric Muscle lengthens under resistance (effort<resistance) Isometric Muscle length remains constant against resistance (effort=resistance)
2. Define the following muscle action concepts and principles.
Length-tension relationship The tension a muscle can produce at a given resting length Force-couple A muscle pair working to produce motion Force-velocity curve An increase in velocity correlates to a decrease in concentric force and an increase in eccentric force Neuromuscular efficiency The degree at which force can be produced, reduced, and stabilized across all 3 movement planes Structural efficiency The degree of optimal alignment of the musculoskeletal system towards the most ideal centre of mass distribution for a given body Davis’s law soft tissue models along the lines of stress Autogenic inhibition Muscle spindle inhibition due to sensory impulses of tension being greater than motor impulses of contraction Reciprocal inhibition The contraction of one muscle leads to the relaxation of it’s opposite to facilitate movement. Relative flexibility Body’s affinity towards seeking the least resistive path Pattern overload Abnormal stress caused by excessive repetition of a single movement Postural distortion patterns Common movement patterns associated with muscle imbalances Altered reciprocal inhibition A tight agonist that inhibits its functional antagonist causing muscle inhibition Synergistic dominance When a prime mover’s function is taken over by a synergist Muscle imbalance Disproportionate muscle length about a joint
3. Label the “Cumulative Injury Cycle” diagram below.
The cumulative injury cycle is essential for the fitness professional to understand that poor posture and repetitive, overuse movements can create dysfunction within the connective tissue of the human body. This image is figure 14-12 in the 7th edition.
Section11. The OPT Model
1. Define the “OPT” model.
NASM’s Optimal Performance Training model aimed at enhancing the body through the correction of deficiencies, and improvement of the fundamentals of stabilization, strength, and power
2. Define the 3 pillars of the OPT Model
Stability The ability to achieve and maintain postural equilibrium through all planes of motion Strength The degree to which muscular tension can produce force Strength endurance The length of time muscular tension can be sustained Maximal strength The maximum amount of force that can be produced through muscular contraction Muscular hypertrophy The increase in mass and volume of muscle tissue due to growth stimulated by metabolic and/or mechanical response. May lead to a corresponding increase in strength and power. Power The rate of strength output over time.
Section12. Principles of Motor Development
1. Define the following key concepts of motor development.
Motor behavior motor response to internal and external stimuli Motor control The integration of present sensory stimuli with previous experiences via the CNS Motor learning Incorporation of motor control patterns into adopted movement systems through repetition. Motor development The lifelong progression of motor skill behavior. Sensorimotor integration The integration of sensory input with the appropriate motor response. Muscle synergies Muscles collaboratively recruited by the CNS to produce movement Proprioception The ability to interpret sensory input from mechanoreceptors in order to maintain balance and postural equilibrium.
2. Describe the two main types of motor feedback.
Internal feedback: sensory input data resulting from the corresponding internal response to motor function and its outcomes. External feedback: explicit data provided by external validators such as a coach, video playback or readings on measuring implements.
1. Describe carbohydrates.
Primary energy source macronutrients that include sugars, starches, and fiber.
2. Define the different types of carbohydrates.
Monosaccharide A single unit of sugar. E.g. fructose, glucose. Disaccharides A double sugar molecule. E.g. lactose, sucrose and maltose. Fiber Complex polysaccharide found in plant tissue. Assists in gut health, glucose uptake regulation, and the nourishment of gut microbiota. Soluble Fiber Soluble fiber dissolves in water. Insoluble Fiber Insoluble fiber remains solid/in suspension in water. Glucose The most basic molecular structure of a carbohydrate Glycogen Carbohydrate storage unit stored in liver and muscle tissue
3. What is the Glycemic index?
The Glycemic index refers to numbers (0–100) assigned to a food source that represents the rise in blood sugar after consuming the food.
4. Describe Lipids.
Lipids are organic compounds made of glycerol and fatty acids that are hydrophobic. They include oils, fats, waxes, and steroids and contain roughly twice the energy yield per unit mass of carbohydrates.
5. Define the different types of lipids.
Triglyceride The most common lipid structure consists of glycerol and 3 fatty acids. Saturated Fat A lipid where all the fatty acid chains have single bonds. Solid at ambient temperature. Trans-fat Hydrogenated unsaturated fat used for large scale industrial food production. Knowl to pose tremendous health risks Unsaturated fat A lipid where one or more double bond in the fatty acid chain Monounsaturated A lipid with only one double bond Polyunsaturated A lipid with more than one double bond
6. Give examples of food sources of these 3 lipid types.
A nitrogen-based organic molecule comprised of one or more amino acid chains.
8. Define Amino Acids.
Sub Molecules of proteins containing amine and carboxyl groups.
9. What are Essential Amino Acids?
Amino acids that are both necessary to normal life function and cannot be naturally produced in the body. They must therefore be ingested through an inclusive diet.
10. What are Non-essential Amino Acids?
Amino acids that are either unnecessary to normal health, or are necessary, but are naturally produced in adequate quantities and don’t need to be ingested through an inclusive diet.
11. What is a Complete Protein?
A protein or protein source that includes all essential amino acids.
12. What is an Incomplete Protein?
A protein or protein source that does not possess all necessary amino acids.
1. What are micronutrients?
Inorganic molecules that drive important life functions and are only needed in trace quantities. These include vitamins and minerals.
2. What is toxicity?
A substance’s ability to have a negative impact on health.
1. What approximate percentage of the body is made of water?
2. What is the daily recommended water intake for men and what is it for women?
2.2 L for women and 3 L for men.
3. What is a benefit of drinking cold water?
Cold water is well known to assist in digestive health.
4. What should one drink during exercise that exceeds 1 hour?
A beverage containing up to 8% carbohydrates.
5. For an overweight person, how much extra water is recommended for every 25 lbs overweight?
6. What are the two adverse effects of dehydration?
Fatigue decreased performance and circulatory deficiency.
Section16. Recommendations and Guidelines for Caloric Intake and Expenditure
1. What is a calorie?
The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius.
2. What is the resting metabolic rate (RMR)?
Amount of energy expended during rest and inactivity.
3. What is the thermic effect of food (TEF)?
The energy expended through the process of digestion accounting for 6-10% of total expenditure.
4. What is the estimated amount of energy expended through deliberate physical activity?
Approximately 20% of total energy.
5. List the 3 ideal protocols when using carbs for performance.
– High carb consumption two to four hours before physical activity – Consume 1,5 grams of carbs per kg of body weight to maximize glycogen reserves – For activity lasting more than 1 hour, consume 30 – 60 grams of carbs per hour
Section17. Dietary Reference Intakes
1. What are dietary reference intakes (DRIs)?
The guidelines for the ideal intake of a given nutrient.
2. Define the recommended dietary allowance (RDA).
The mean daily nutritional requirements for an individual of normal health.
3. Tolerable upper intake (UL).
The maximum intake level with no perceived health risks.
4. What is adequate intake (AI)?
The ideal recommended nutrient intake for individuals of normal health.
Section18. Portion Sizes, Meal Timing, and Frequency
1. List the daily recommendations for different health goals.
The table shows the recommendations for how someone should look to eat when wanting to change their body in the following ways.
No more than 10% fat
Eat 4 to 6 meals per day
Incorporate low GI carbs
Distribute all macronutrients through the day
Spread protein intake through the day
Consume four to 6 meals per day to control hunger and cravings
Consume carbs and protein within 90 minutes of physical activity for optimal protein synthesis
Avoid calorically-dense processed foods
Maintain healthy ratios of carbs and fats
Hydrate with approx 9 to 13 cups of water/day
Measure food portions
Seek professional supervision for diets under 1200 kcal
Section19. Common Nutritional Supplements
1. What is an ergogenic aid?
A substance or drug used in athletic performance enhancement.
2. Where is creatine made?
Made in the body via the ATP-PC system.
3. What are the main benefits of creatine supplementation?
Can boost anaerobic performance and strength output during exercise. Can increase muscle mass over the long term.
4. What is the recommended pre-workout consumption of caffeine for an increase in performance?
Consuming g 3-6mg/kg of body weight 1 hour before physical activity has been shown to improve performance.
5. What status do pro-hormones and anabolic steroids have in competitive sport?
They are categorically illegal and prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency.
Domain 3: Assessment
Section1. The PAR-Q
1. List the 3 purposes of the PAR-Q.
1. Determines risk level of exercise for an individual 2. Identifies the need for medical evaluation in an individual 3. Leads to physician referral if the answer is yes to one or more of the questions
Section2. Elements of Personal, Occupational, and Family Medical History
1. What are the risks associated with extended periods of sitting?
Tightening on the hip flexors, weakening of posterior chain muscles (rounded shoulders and forward head).
2. What are the risks associated with repetitive movement patterns?
Can lead to pattern overload and overuse injuries.
3. What are the risks associated with over-wearing of dress shoes?
The sustained plantar-flexion can lead to tight calf muscles, leading to over-pronation and weakened dorsiflexion.
The straight percentage formula is an easier calculation, while the regression formula gives a more accurate reading.
3. What is the process involved in the YMCA 3-minute step test:
1. Execute 96 steps/minute, on a 12-inch step, over a 3 minute period. 2. Take a 60-second recovery pulse within 5 seconds of stopping 3. Refer to the chart on page 130 of the textbook and match recovery pulse to it 4. Assign the correct heart rate zone:Zone 1: poor – fair 5. Zone 2: average – good 6. Zone 3: very good
4. What is the process involved in the Rockport walk test?
1. Document weight 2. 1-mile treadmill walk 3. Document time 4. Record heart rate immediately after 5. Use the VO2 formula to calculate the VO2 score 6. Use the chart on textbook page 132 to match score with age and sex 7. Assign the correct heart rate zones Zone 1: poor – fair Zone 2: average – good Zone 3: very good
Section4. Physiological Assessments
1. How do you measure the radial pulse?
Place index and middle fingers on the wrist proximal to the thumb.
2. How do you measure the carotid pulse?
Less preferred for clients, more suitable for emergency first response, located on the side of the neck.
3. What is the resting heart rate (RHR) and how do you determine it?
The heart rate experienced at rest. It can be determined as an average of 3 consecutive morning heart rate readings.
4. What is the average RHR for men and for women?
Ave RHR men: 70bpm. Ave RHR women: 75bpm. The healthy adult range sits between 70 – 80 bpm.
5. What are the two blood pressure readings and what is their healthy range?
Systolic: maximum arterial pressure which occurs during cardiac contraction. Health normal of up to 120 mm Hg Diastolic: minimum arterial pressure which occurs during cardiac relaxation. Healthy normal of up to 90 mm Hg
Section5. Static Postural Assessment
1. What are the kinetic chain checkpoints?
The body’s main joint regions such as knees, elbows, ankles, wrists, head/neck, LPHC, and shoulder girdle.
2. Complete the postural assessment charts below?
These static and dynamic postural assessment diagrams are found throughout Lesson 2 of Chapter 12 in the 7th Edition.
Section6. Assessments from Adjacent Professionals
1. What is cholesterol?
Cholesterol is a lipid derivative found in the blood and produced in the liver.
2. Define HDL and LDL cholesterol, their differences, and their contribution to general health?
HDL is high-density lipoprotein and is a form of cholesterol considered beneficial for health. LDL is low-density lipoprotein and has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
3. What is the healthy total cholesterol level?
A level of no more than 200 mg/dL.
Section7. Body Composition Assessments
1. How do you classify an overweight person?
Any person whose weight sits at no less than 25 lbs above their ideal weight for their height, or anyone with a BMI of 25 to 29.9.
2. How do you classify obesity?
A BMI of at least 30 is classified as obese.
3. How is a skin-fold measurement conducted?
The use of skinfold calipers is implemented at four body sites, these being:
These measurements are taken on the right side of the body, followed by input into the Durnin-Womersley formula for a final body fat estimate.
4. How do you calculate fat mass?
Fat mass is calculated as the product of body fat % and total scale weight.
5. How do you calculate lean body mass?
Lean mass is calculated as the total scale weight minus the fat mass.
6. How does bioelectrical impedance work?
An electric current is sent through the body and used to determine total fat mass.
7. How does underwater weighing work?
Underwater weighing uses the principle that fat mass is more buoyant than lean mass.
8. How do circumference measurements work?
Measurements based on changes in girth of several sites such as ankles, chest, waist, hips, calves, and neck. Considered inaccurate.
9. How do you measure using the waist-to-hip ratio?
The waist circumference is divided by the width of the hips. A ratio no less than 0.8 for females and one of no less than 0.95 for males indicates the potential for obesity-related risk factors.
10. What is body mass index (BMI)?
The weight to height ratio of a person. The higher the BMI, the more likely a person is overweight or obese, the lower the BMI, the more likely they are underweight.
Section8. Performance Assessments
1. Define the following performance assessments.
Davies test An agility and stability test for the upper body Shark skill test Neuromuscular control and agility test for the lower body Bench press test Determines upper-body maximal strength (1 rep max) Squat test Determines lower body maximal strength (1 rep max) Push-up test Determines upper body muscular endurance LEFT test Determines acceleration, deceleration agility, and neuromuscular control
Section9. Dynamic Postural Assessments
1. What is the overhead squat assessment?
Analyzes posture through movement to determine any movement dysfunctions, imbalances or deviations.
2. Complete the OHSA solutions table below.
This overhead squat assessment, one of the more important dynamic posture assessments, can be found throughout lesson 3 of Chapter 12 in the 7th Edition.
Kinetic Chain Checkpoint
Pronounced forward lean
Hip flexor complex
Anterior pelvic tilt
Intrinsic core stabilizers
Posterior pelvic tilt
Intrinsic core stabilizers
Arms shit forwards
Middle / lower trapezius
Medial hamstring complex
Biceps femoris (short head)
Vastus medialis oblique (VMO)
Biceps femoris (short head)
Tensor fasciae latae (TFL)
Biceps femoris (short head)
Medial hamstring complex
3. What does the single leg squat assessment identify?
Assess for the level of ankle proprioception core stability and strength and hip stability and strength.
4. Complete the single-leg squat assessment solutions table below.
The Single-leg Squat assessment is a slightly more advanced assessment that looks to find problems in dynamic posture. This can be found throughout lesson 3 of chapter 12 in the 7th edition.
Kinetic Chain Checkpoint
Vastus medialis oblique
5. What does the pushing assessment identify?
Assess for level of efficiency and identify potential imbalances during pushing movements.
6. Complete the pushing assessment solutions table below.
This is another form of dynamic posture assessment that is commonly used. This can be found throughout lesson 3 of chapter 12 in the 7th edition.
Kinetic Chain Checkpoint
Low back arches
Intrinsic core stabilizers
Deep cervical flexors
7. What does the pulling assessment identify?
Assess for the level of efficiency and identifies potential imbalances during pulling movements.
8. Complete the pulling assessment solutions table below.
Another form of dynamic posture assessment, and this too can be found throughout the lesson 3 of chapter 12 in the 7th edition.
Kinetic Chain Checkpoint
Lower Back Arches
Intrinsic core stabilizers
Deep cervicalSternocleidomastoid flexors
9. What does the gait assessment identify?
Assess for level of efficiency and identify potential imbalances during walking and running.
10. Complete the gait assessment solutions table below.
The gait cycle is discussed throughout lesson 1 of chapter 19 in the 7th edition.
Biceps femoris (short head)
Biceps femoris (short head)
Biceps femoris (short head)
Vastus medialis oblique
Low back arch
Hip flexor complex
Intrinsic core stabilizers
Intrinsic core stabilizers
Quadratus lumborum (opposite side)
Adductor complex (sameside)
TFL/gluteus minimus (same side)
Gluteus medius (same side)
Middle and lower trapezius
Deep cervical flexors
Section10. Performing Assessments with Special Populations
1. Which assessments should be avoided and which are ideal for pregnant women?
A modification of the single-leg squat assessment to a single leg balance assessment as well as a reduction in ROM of the overhead squat. Push up an assessment to pivot off the knees instead of feet. Avoid power and impact based exercises and assessments.
2. What is the ideal assessment protocol for an obese person?
For cardio assessment, the Rockport walk test is the ideal assessment. Institute a single leg balance test instead of the single-leg squat and implement the push-up test with the knees as the pivot and an elevation for the hands such as a bench.
Section11. Indicators that a Client’s Condition is Outside Scope of Practice
1. List four areas that fall outside a fitness professional’s scope of practice.
Medical diagnosis Prescription of pharmaceuticals and treatment of any medical condition Diet prescription and therapy Psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, or mental health counseling
Section12. Criteria For Reassessment
1. Which four scenarios present an ideal necessity for reassessment?
-After a four week period where changes in programming are occurring -After notable indications of improvement -When new goals have been identified and selected by the client -When notable changes in lifestyle behaviors occur such as dietary, career, relinquishing of previous addictions, etc…
2. Describe corrective flexibility training and identify which training phase should be implemented.
Corrective flexibility should be implemented in phase 1 of training and helps increase ROM, addresses imbalances and corrects deviated movement patterns.
3. Describe active flexibility training and identify which training phase(s) should be implemented?
Best implemented at phases 2, 3, and 4. It helps promote improved neuromuscular efficiency, soft tissue extensibility, and reciprocal inhibition.
4. Describe functional flexibility and identify which training phase(s) should be implemented.
Best implemented at phase 5 of training. This type of flexibility promotes and maintains integrated, multiplanar soft tissue extensibility while optimizing neuromuscular control.
5. Describe the self-myofascial release.
Gentle massaging motions using a rigid, smooth implement such as a foam roller to ease and release knots in the muscle tissue. This relieves tension and autogenic inhibition.
6. Describe static stretching.
Stretching muscle just past the comfortable tension limit and holding the extension for at least 30 seconds.
7. Describe active-isolated stretching.
Dynamic movement of joints into an ROM by agonists and synergists.
8. Describe dynamic stretching.
Uses momentum and production of force to move joints through a full ROM.
Domain 4: Program Design
Section1. Resistance Training Systems
1. Describe single-set training.
Training one set per exercise. This is an ideal protocol for beginners.
2. Describe multiple-set training.
Multiple sets per exercise.
3. Describe pyramid training.
Training where the intensity increases or decreases progressively with each set.
4. Describe superset training.
Performing two consecutive sets of exercises with very little to no rest in-between.
5. Describe circuit training.
Performing multiple exercises with little rest between sets.
6. Describe peripheral heart action training.
A circuit training variation that alternates upper and lower body training for optimized circulation.
7. What is split-routine training?
Compartmentalizing training focus between upper and lower body and dedicating entire sessions accordingly.
8. Describe what is meant by vertical loading.
Alternating training focus between upper and lower body with each set.
9. Describe what is meant by horizontal loading.
Focusing on all exercises for one body segment then moving onto the next within one session.
Section 2. Resistance Training Methods
1. In the table below fill in the recommended training methods for each of the OPT model’s steps and phases, also providing examples of appropriate exercises.
This information is taken from chapter 21 of the 7th edition.
4/2/1 tempo, lower weight, and higher reps in an unstable, but controlled, environment
2/0/2 tempo, moderate to heavyweight, low to moderate reps with full ROM
Explosive tempo, lightweight, moderate reps with full ROM
Ball squat, curl to press
Lunge to two-arm dumbbell press
Two-arm medicine ball chest pass
Multiplanar step-up balance, curl, to overhead press
Squat to two-arm press
Rotation chest pass
Ball dumbbell chest press
Two-arm push press
Ball medicine ball pullover throw
Standing cable row
Flat dumbbell chest press
Medicine ball scoop toss(shoulders)
Ball dumbbell row
Barbell bench press
Medicine ball side oblique throw
Single-leg dumbbell scaption
Seated cable row
Seated stability ball military press
Seated lat pull
Single-leg dumbbell curl
Seated dumbbell shoulder press
Single-leg barbell curl
Seated shoulder press machine
Supine ball dumbbell triceps extension
Seated two-arm dumbbell biceps curls
Prone ball dumbbell triceps extension
Biceps curl machine
Multiplanar step-up tobalance
Supine bench barbell triceps extension
Section3. Cardiorespiratory Training Methods
1. Describe stage training.
Cardio training was instituted in a progressive manner so as to avoid injury and over-training.
2. What are the characteristics of stage l training.
Characterized by initial cardio activation for sedentary individuals. Implemented at HR zone 1. Starts slow and progresses up to about 30-60 mins of training.
3. What are the characteristics of stage ll training?
Characterized by cardio progress for intermediate level individuals. Implemented at HR zone 2 intervals, with HR zone 1 for recovery. 1 min zone 2:3 min zone 1 (1:3 work/rest ratio).
4. What are the characteristics of stage llI training
Characterized by cardio progress for advanced level individuals. Implemented at HR zone 3 intervals, with HR zone 2 for recovery and HR zone 1 as a warm-up. 1 min zone 3:1 min zone 2 (1:1 work/rest ratio).
Section4. Core Training Methods
1. Why is it important to implement core and stability training?
For effective global stability of all movement chains through the body. Develops local stabilization muscles, muscle balance and correct transfer of force.
2. Describe what is meant by a “drawing-in maneuver”.
Core stabilizer recruitment is activated by pulling the navel towards the spine (local stabilization).
3. Describe what is meant by “bracing”.
Stabilizing the LHPC through contraction of the anterior and posterior core muscles as well as the glutes (global stabilization).
Section5. Balance Training Methods
1. Detail four benefits of balance training.
– Develops awareness of balance limit/threshold – Optimizes synchronicity and synergy of muscle firing patterns in turn improving joint stability. – Combines functional training with proprioceptive activation. – Maximizes sensory input to CNS, in turn, maximizes the efficiency of relevant motor response.
Section6. Proprioceptive Manipulation
1. List six proprioceptive progressions.
– Stable to unstable – Static to dynamic – Slow to fast – Two limbs to single limbs – Open eyes to closed eyes – Known to unknown
5. List 3 outcomes of low volume (high intensity) adaptation.
– Strength increase – Increased recruitment of motor units – Optimized synchronicity of motor units
Section16. Modality Risks and Rewards
1. Define bodyweight training.
Training using one’s own physical mass as a training load through all planes of motion.
2. Describe suspension training as well as some of the apparatus involved.
Using ropes and webbing to create a proprioceptively rich training environment.
3. Describe free weights and implements training as well as some of the apparatus involved.
Movement of external load through multiple planes of motion while anchoring to a stable base. E.g. dumbbells, barbells, kettle-bells, medicine balls and sandbags.
4. When are strength training machines most ideal?
Ideal for beginners with limited stability adaptation and ROM.
5. Describe proprioceptive modalities and some of the apparatus involved.
Proprioceptive modalities are used to create instability during exercise thus leading to a proprioceptively rich training environment that causes adaptations towards balance and stability. Equipment includes an unstable surface of the apparatus.
Section 17. Overtraining, Rest, and Recovery
1. What are the eight common signs of overtraining syndrome?
Section18. Current Trends and Their Application to Training
1. List four benefits of incorporating mobile apps.
– Provides constant, sustained guidance and feedback – Can manage and assess all variables – Allows for remote client management – Optimized nutritional management
2. List 3 benefits of incorporating activity trackers.
1. Provides exercise data and feedback 2. Monitors vitals and sleep habits 3. Provides information on progress and incentivizes it
3. List 5 benefits of incorporating social media.
1. Powerful marketing tool for services 2. PR and reputation management 3. Provide value through information and useful content 4. Inspire clients and prospects 5. Network with peers and collaborators. Study and learn from competitors
4. Name an important emerging technology.
Wearable fitness trackers.
Section 19. Program Design for SpecialPopulations
1. Complete the Youth Training Considerations table below.
This is a focus of lesson 1 in chapter 23 of the 7th edition.
Moderate cardio (jogging, walking, running), sports, and games. Resistance training
Moderate to vigorous
5 to 7 days per week (cardio)
No more than 1 hour per day
Adhere to OPT flexibility protocols
Frequency: 2-3 days/ weekSets: 1-5 setsRepetitions: 3-30/setIntensity: 45%-85% of 1-RM
Activity should be enjoyable and based on the quality of postural control and less on the intensity
2. Complete the Older Adult Training Considerations table below.
This table also comes from lesson 1 of chapter 23 in the 7th edition.
Stationary cycling, treadmill with handrail, aquatic aerobics
Slow and well-monitored progress. Progress exercises toward free sitting or standing. Regular breathing avoiding Valsalva maneuver Implement slow, active, or dynamic stretching in case SMR or static stretching is poorly received.
3. Complete the Pregnancy Training Considerations table below.
This is featured in lesson 6 of chapter 23 in the 7th edition.
Low impact cardio (treadmill, stationary bike) no sudden or jarring motions
Stage 1 cardio. Stage 2 if medically cleared
3-5 days/week cardio
SMR, static and active-isolated stretching
Frequency: 2-3 days per week Sets: follow OPT Phase Repetitions: 12-15 per set intensity: light loads Only OPT Phases 1 and 2 are advised; use the only Phase 1 after the first trimester.
No prone or supine exercises beyond the 12th week of pregnancy. No SMR on varicose vein regions and swollen areas. No plyometric exercises during the second and third trimesters. No power or speed assessment. Pivot push-up assessment from knees instead of feet. Change the single-leg squat to a single-leg balance assessment. Reduce ROM for the overhead squat assessment.
4. Complete the Obesity Training Considerations table below.
This is featured in lesson 2 of chapter 23 of the 7th edition.
Low impact cardio (treadmill, stationary bike) no sudden or jarring motions
60-80% HRmax; can be adjusted to 40-70%; use the talk test
5-7 days/week cardio
40 – 60 mins/day. 2x 20-30min/day
Stretches performed seated or standing, use SMR if possible
Frequency: 2-3 days/week. Sets: 1-3 sets. Repetitions: 10-15 /set. Intensity: follow OPT Phases Implement circuit training for Phases 1 and 2
Exercise should be performed standing or seated when possible. Watch for other obesity-related chronic diseases. Use the Rockport walk test for cardiac assessment. Pivot push-up assessment from knees instead of feet. Test single-leg balance instead of single-leg squat assessment.
5. Complete the Hypertension Training Considerations table below.
This is featured in lesson 4 of chapter 23 in the 7th edition.
Stationary cycling, treadmill walking, rowers
50-85% HRmax, can adjust to 40-70%. Stage 1 cardio progressing to stage 2 cardio
3-7 days/ week cardio
Static and active-isolated stretching; standing or seated
Frequency: 2-3 days/week Sets: 1-3 sets Repetitions: 10-20/set Intensity: Adhered to OPT Phase protocols, no more than 1 second for isometric and concentric muscle activity. Implement circuit or PHA training systems with adequate recovery.
No heavy lifting or Valsalva maneuver. Avoid over-gripping weights or clenching fists during workouts. Perform exercises in a standing or seated position. Stand up slowly to avoid vertigo/dizziness. Slow progression
6. Complete the Osteoporosis Training Considerations Table below.
This is featured in lesson 5 of chapter 23 in the 7th edition.
Treadmill with handrail
50-90% HRmax. Stage 1 cardio progressing to stage 2
2-5 days/week cardio
20-60 min/day. 8 -10min bouts
Static and active-isolated stretching
Frequency: 2-3 days/week Sets: 1-3 sets Repetitions: 8-20/set Intensity: max of 85% 1-RM
Slow progress Progress to free sitting/standing if possible Hips, thighs, back, and arms focal areas Avoid excess loads on the spine Avoid the Valsalva maneuver.
Domain 5: Exercise Technique and Training Instruction
Section1. Exercise Set-up and Technique
1. List 5 key tasks for the correct set-up and instruction of exercises.
– Asses set-up and correct technique of all documented exercises- – Categorize all exercises – Regress each exercise – Progress each exercise – Perform each exercise
2. What are 9 effects and benefits of a good warm-up?
– Boost respiratory and heart rate – Boosts cardiac output for exercise – Boosts circulation to active muscles – Boost oxygen uptake and use capacity – Boosts temperature of active tissues – Boosts rate of muscular contraction – Boosts metabolic activity – Boosts extensibility of soft tissue – Boost mental focus and readiness for exercise
3. What is the difference between a general warm-up and a specific warm-up?
Low-intensity movement unrelated to specific training activities would fall under general warm-up, while a specific warm-up would entail low-intensity movements that directly mimic the intended training activity.
4. Define a “cool-down” and how it is performed.
Gradual 5-10 minute transition from active to steady-state utilizing light cardio, static stretching and SMR.
5. Describe triple extension/flexion and when it occurs.
Concurrent extension or flexion of hip, knee, and ankle.
Section2. Kinesthetic, Auditory, and Visual Cueing
1. What is sensory feedback and what are its effects?
The information produced by sensory input and sensorimotor integration that leads to permanent pattern development.
2. What are the differences between external and internal feedback?
External feedback is provided explicitly by external mediators while internal feedback is tacit recognition of intrinsic effects/changes.
3. What are the two main types of external feedback?
Audiovisual through and instructor or playback system and knowledge of results.
4. List 3 effective ways to explain an exercise to a client.
– Tell (auditory cueing) – Show (visual cueing) – Direct (kinesthetic cueing)
Section 3. Safe Training Practices
1. What are the most essential safety questions when preparing to train a client?
What: Is safe? Is a contraindication? Is an Appropriate Intensity?
How: How many exercises? Sets and Reps? Days per week?
Section4. Safe and Effective Spotting Techniques
1. List five important safety and spotting considerations.
– Determine total reps to be performed – Only take weight where there is immediate danger of dropping – Only assist just enough to overcome ”sticking point” – Spot wrists and not elbows during dumbbell workouts – Avoid spotting machine-based exercises by positioning your hands under the weight stack.
Section5. Proper Breathing Technique
1. List 3 abnormal breathing features.
– Shallow breathing may be due to use of secondary respiratory muscles instead of the diaphragm – Respiratory muscle overactivity may result in headaches and dizziness – Excessive breathing can lead to oxygen/CO2 imbalance and retention of waste molecules.
2. How would you advise a client to breathe in order to limit abnormal breathing patterns?
Instruct breathing through the stomach in order to normalize.
Domain 6: Professional Development and Responsibility
Section1. Professional Guidelines and Standards
1. According to the NASM Code of Conduct, list four guidelines a trainer must adhere to to protect the public and the profession.
1. Not diagnose or treat illness or injury unless for basic first aid or if the Certified Professional is legally licensed to do so and is working in that capacity at that time 2. Not train clients with a diagnosed health condition unless the Certified Professional has been specifically trained to do so, 3. Not begin to train a client prior to receiving and reviewing a current health-history questionnaire signed by the client. 4. Hold a current cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) certification from a NASM-approved provider at all times
Section2. Business Fundamentals
1. Describe “forecasting” as it applies to the business fundamentals of professional fitness.
Making informed predictions based on previous performance indicators and existing trends.
2. List the 10 steps to business success in fitness.
1. Decide on an income figure 2. Identify weekly earnings required for that goal 3. Calculate the number of required weekly sessions 4. Identify the required closing percentage 5. Create client conversion timeline 6. Identify the total number of interactions required based on the closing percentage 7. Identify the required amount of daily interactions 8. Do an hour by hour daily breakdown of interactions 9. Make sure you obtain contact information 10. Conduct follow-ups
Section3. Marketing Concepts and Techniques
1. What are the 4 P’s of marketing in fitness?
1 – Product 2 – Price 3. -Placement 4 – Promotion
Section4. Sales Concepts and Techniques
1. Define “prospecting”.
Implementation of methods designed to search for new clients.
2. What are the 4 key steps to “asking for the sale”.
1 – Be visible and available 2 – Be confident enough to ask for the sale 3 – Display value and quality of service. Market your personality as well as your product 4 – Remain is consistent contact with prospective and current clients
3. What are the ways you can overcome the objection to a sale?
– Empathize with and understand the client’s concerns – Isolate the actual drawbacks – Remind the client of the benefits – Make a plan to resolve concerns
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