Free NASM CPT Study Guide
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Section 1. The Nervous System
1. Define the following components of the nervous system. (pg 18):
D1 Section 1.1
|Central nervous system (CNS)||The main nervous control structures consisting of the brain and spinal cord|
|Peripheral nervous system (PNS)||Part of the nervous system that branches out from the CNS and connects it to tissues and organs|
|Somatic||Part of the peripheral nervous system responsible for conducting voluntary motor action|
|Autonomic||Part of the peripheral nervous that connects and communicates with internal organs|
|Parasympathetic||Part of the autonomic nervous system. Controls smooth and cardiac muscles, as well as glands and, is responsible for the rest and digest response|
|Sympathetic||Part of the autonomic nervous system. Controls the body’s response to stress by stimulating the release of hormones that promote alertness, increasing heart rate for quicker action.|
|Neuron||A single nerve cell|
|Motor (efferent) neurons||A neuron that sends output signals to muscles to stimulate contraction|
|Sensory (afferent) neurons||A neuron that receives input signals from environmental stimuli which are read as data by the CNS|
|Mechanoreceptors||A sensory neuron that responds to mechanical stimuli such as pressure or sound vibrations|
|Joint receptors||Sensory receptors found in synovial joints for the sake of providing information to the CNS about the state and position of joints|
|Golgi tendon organs (GTO)||Receptors located in the tendons that signal the degree of tension experienced during muscle contraction.|
|Muscle spindles||Sensory receptors found in muscles that provide information about the muscles state of contraction for fine motor control.|
2. Define the 3 main functions of the nervous system. (pg. 18 – 19)
D1 Section 2.1
Section 2. The Muscular System
1. Define the following components of the muscular system. (pg. 40):
D1 Section 2.1
|Tendons||Connective tissue bridging muscles to the skeleton|
|Fascia||Connective tissue that consists of a tough fibrous membrane that holds muscle tissue together|
|Fascicles||Muscle fiber units bundled within a single muscle|
|Muscle fiber||Cylindrical cells that produce and resist force through mechanical contraction allowing organisms to move and reposition|
|Sarcomere||The muscle fiber’s fundamental contractile unit consisting of protein filaments actin and myosin|
|Sliding filament theory||That contraction of muscles takes place through the sliding of actin and myosin|
|Type I (slow-twitch) muscle tissue||Predominantly aerobic muscle fibers responsible for sustained focused contractions and have a relatively higher mitochondrial count for that reason|
|Type II (fast-twitch) muscle tissue||More anaerobic, these fibers are tasked with short, explosive contractions aimed at generating power and speed|
|Motor unit||The smallest functional unit of a muscle and motor unit system|
|Neural activation||Stimulation of motor units through delivery of mild impulse. Also known as warming up.|
|Neurotransmitters||A signaling chemical release at the end of nerve synapses used to transfer impulses across nerve junctions or to muscle fibers|
2. Label This Cross-section of a muscle. (pg. 41):
D1 Section 2.2
3. Define the following muscle systems. (pg. 42 – 46):
D1 Section 2.3
|Local stabilization system||Muscle system connected directly to vertebrae|
|Global stabilization system||Muscle system that transfer force between the upper and lower body, thus providing full-body stability|
|Movement system||All organs and structures whose collective function brings about mobility and biomechanical activity|
Section 3. The Skeletal System
1. Label this diagram of the spine. (pg. 32):
D1 Section 3.1
2. Define the following components of the skeletal system. (pg. 25):
D1 Section 3.2 (pg. 25)
|Axial skeleton||The central skeletal frame consisting of the skull, spine, and thoracic cage|
|Appendicular skeleton||The skeletal framework of the extremities (limbs)|
|Depressions||Special orifices and indentations in the skeletal structure that allow for the passage and placement of internal organs, nerves, and circulatory vessels|
|Process||A skeletal procession is an outcropping of bone from a main skeletal structure that serves as an anchor or leverage point for organs or tissues with relation to the muscle|
|Ligaments||Connective tissue that joins two or more bones via a synovial junction or joint.|
3. Define the following components and functions of the joint system. (pg. 34 – 37)
D1 Section 3.3
|Skeletal system functions||Structural integrity and support, protection of vital organs, mobility, anchoring of organs, production of blood and endocrine hormones|
|Non-synovial joints||Maintains structural integrity by joining bone segments not required to perform movement|
|Synovial Joints||Joints which allow smooth movement between two or more adjacent bones|
|Major motion types||Spin, slide, and roll|
|Hinge Joint||Sagittal plane. E.g. elbows and knees|
|Ball-and-socket Joint||Full axis mobility. E.g. Pelvic and shoulder girdle|
|Arthrokinematics||The science of joint motion|
Section 4. The Endocrine System
1. Define the following components of the endocrine system. (pg. 47 – 51):
D1 Section 4.1
|Endocrine system||The system responsible for the production and secretion of hormones|
|Testosterone||Anabolic male sex hormone|
|Estrogen||Female sex hormone|
|Growth hormone||Anabolic tissue growth hormone|
|Insulin||Energy and micronutrient regulation hormone|
Section 5. The Cardio-respiratory System
1. Define the following. (pg 54):
D1 Section 5.1
|Cardiorespiratory system||System comprising of the heart & blood vessels (circulatory) and lungs (respiratory)|
|Cardiovascular system||The heart and blood vessels|
|Respiratory system||Lungs and breathing system|
2. Define the following components of the cardiovascular system:
2. Define the following. (pg. 55):
D1 Section 5.2
|Cardiac muscle||Involuntary heart muscle, relatively more rigid than skeletal muscle|
|Right atrium||Gathers low oxygen blood|
|Left atrium||Gathers oxygenated blood from the lungs|
|Sinoatrial (SA) node||Myocyte clusters that generate electrical impulses that determine heart rhythm|
|Right ventricle||Pumps low oxygen blood to lungs|
|Left ventricle||Pumps oxygen-rich blood through the body|
|Arteries||Vessels for oxygenated blood|
|Veins||Vessels for deoxygenated blood|
|Arterioles||Small branches of arteries|
|Capillaries||Smallest blood vessel units. Chemical exchange sites|
|Venules||Smallest branches of veins|
|Stroke volume||The volume of blood circulated with each pump|
|Heart rate||The frequency of heartbeats per minute|
|Cardiac output||Amount of blood pumped per minute|
3. Define the following components of the respiratory system. (pg. 63):
D1 Section 5.3
|Inspiration||Moving air into the lungs through muscular contractions|
|Primary inspiratory muscles||External intercostals and diaphragm|
|Secondary inspiratory muscles||scalenes, sternocleidomastoid and pectoralis minor|
|Expiration||Pushing air out of lungs through muscular contraction|
|Expiratory muscles||Abdominals and internal intercostals|
|Resting oxygen consumption (VO2)||Amounts to 3.5ml/min/kg of body mass and is the equivalent of 1 metabolic equivalent (MET)|
|Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max)||Maximum oxygen consumption rate at peak exercise intensity|
|Dysfunctional breathing||Irregular breathing patterns characteristic of stress and anxiety|
4. Describe the training effects of cardiorespiratory exercise. (pg. 65).
D1 Section 5.4
Increases: metabolic activity mental alertness, cardiac function, respiratory function.
Decreases: resting heart rate, LDL cholesterol, blood pressure, risk of cardiovascular disease.
5. Label the diagram below. (pg. 60):
D1 Section 5.5
*insert image of cardiovascular system
6. What are the 3 main functions of blood? (pg. 59)?
D1 Section 5.6
|Transport||Oxygen, nutrients, and hormones|
|Regulation||Temperature, fluid balance, pH|
|Protection||Immune system, clotting|
Section 6. Bioenergetics and Exercise Metabolism
1. Define the following bioenergetic concepts. (pg. 69):
D1 Section 6.1
|Bioenergetics||The science of energy in the body|
|Metabolism||The usage cycle of nutrients and their conversion into energy, body components, and waste materials through normal life function|
|Aerobic||Using oxygen to drive metabolic function|
|Anaerobic||Metabolic activity with an absence of oxygen|
|Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)||A molecule used to transfer and store energy in cells|
|Anaerobic threshold||The point at which energy demand surpasses oxu=ygen supply|
|Excess post oxygen consumption(EPOC)||Post-exercise elevated metabolic activity|
2. List the components and functions of the following energy systems. (pg. 70):
D1 Section 6.2
|Oxidative||Aerobic glycolysis, Krebs cycle, electron transport chain, Long-term energy|
|Glycolysis||Anaerobic, Moderate-to-high intensity, lasts up to 30-50 seconds|
|ATP-PC||Anaerobic, High-intensity, Lasts up to 10-15 seconds|
Section 7. Fundamentals of Biomechanics
1. Define “Biomechanics”. (pg. 82-83):
D1 Section 7.1
The science concerning the generation, transfer, and resistance of mechanical force by the musculoskeletal system and the effects produced.
2. Define “Force”. (pg. 94).
D1 Section 7.2
A transfer of energy that acts on a physical body causing it to change its direction and velocity.
c. Define “Torque” (pg. 98).
D1 Section 7.3
A rotational force acting about a fixed axis.
4. Define “Lever“. (pg. 96).
D1 Section 7.4
A rigid bar that applies torque about a fixed pivot or fulcrum.
5. Describe the 3 classes of levers. (pg. 97):
D1 Section 7.5
|1st class||The fulcrum in the center|
|2nd class||Resistance in the center|
|3rd class||Effort in the center|
Section 8. Anatomic locations
1. Describe the following anatomic locations. (pg. 83):
D1 Section 8.1
|Proximal||Closest to a reference point|
|Distal||Furthest from a reference point|
|Lateral||On either side|
b. Define the following planes of motion and give examples of where they act. (pg. 85):
D1 Section 8.2
|Frontal||Adduction/abduction, Lateral flexion, Eversion/inversion||Lateral raise, lateral lunge, lateral shuffle|
|Sagittal||Flexion and extension||Bicep curl, hamstring curl|
|Transverse||Rotation, Horizontal adduction/abduction||Throwing motion|
Section 9. Joint Motions
1. Define the following joint motions. (pg. 84):
D1 Section 9.1
|Plantar flexion||extension about the ankle joint|
|Dorsiflexion||Flexion about the ankle joint|
|Abduction||Extension away from the midline|
|Adduction||Flexion towards the midline|
|Horizontal abduction||Abduction along the transverse plane|
|Internal rotation||Joint rotation towards the midline|
|External rotation||Joint rotation away from the midline|
Section 10. Principles of Human Movement Science
1. Define the following muscle actions. (pg. 90):
D1 Section 10.1
|Concentric||Muscle shortens with contraction (effort>resistance)|
|Eccentric||Muscle lengthens under resistance (effort<resistance)|
|Isometric||Muscle length remains constant against resistance (effort=resistance)|
b. Define the following muscle action concepts and principles. (pg. 94 -95):
D1 Section 10.2
|Length-tension relationship||The tension a muscle can produce at a given resting length|
|Force-couple||A muscle pair working to produce motion|
|Force-velocity curve||An increase in velocity correlates to a decrease in concentric force and an increase in eccentric force|
|Neuromuscular efficiency||The degree at which force can be produced, reduced, and stabilized across all 3 movement planes|
|Structural efficiency||The degree of optimal alignment of the musculoskeletal system towards the most ideal centre of mass distribution for a given body|
|Davis’s law||soft tissue models along the lines of stress|
|Autogenic inhibition||Muscle spindle inhibition due to sensory impulses of tension being greater than motor impulses of contraction|
|Reciprocal inhibition||The contraction of one muscle leads to the relaxation of it’s opposite to facilitate movement.|
|Relative flexibility||Body’s affinity towards seeking the least resistive path|
|Pattern overload||Abnormal stress caused by excessive repetition of a single movement|
|Postural distortion patterns||Common movement patterns associated with muscle imbalances|
|Altered reciprocal inhibition||A tight agonist that inhibits its functional antagonist causing muscle inhibition|
|Synergistic dominance||When a prime mover’s function is taken over by a synergist|
|Muscle imbalance||Disproportionate muscle length about a joint|
c. Label the “Cumulative Injury Cycle” diagram below. ( pg. 170):
D1 Section 10.3
*insert cumulative injury cycle diagram
Section 11. The OPT Model
1. Define the “OPT” model. (pg. 10).
D1 Section 11.1
NASM’s Optimal Performance Training model aimed at enhancing the body through the correction of deficiencies, and improvement of the fundamentals of stabilization, strength, and power (pg. 8 – 9).
2. Define the 3 pillars of the OPT Model (pg. 354):
D1 Section 11.2
|stability||The ability to achieve and maintain postural equilibrium through all planes of motion|
|The degree to which muscular tension can produce force|
|The length of time muscular tension can be sustained|
|The maximum amount of force that can be produced through muscular contraction|
|The increase in mass and volume of muscle tissue due to growth stimulated by metabolic and/or mechanical response. May lead to a corresponding increase in strength and power.|
|Power||The rate of strength output over time.|
Section 12. Principles of Motor Development
1. Define the following key concepts of motor development. (pg. 99):
D1 Section 12.1
|Motor behavior||motor response to internal and external stimuli|
|Motor control||The integration of present sensory stimuli with previous experiences via the CNS|
|Motor learning||Incorporation of motor control patterns into adopted movement systems through repetition.|
|Motor development||The lifelong progression of motor skill behavior.|
|Sensorimotor integration||The integration of sensory input with the appropriate motor response.|
|Muscle synergies||Muscles collaboratively recruited by the CNS to produce movement|
|Proprioception||The ability to interpret sensory input from mechanoreceptors in order to maintain balance and postural equilibrium.|
2. Describe the two main types of motor feedback. (pg. 99 – 102):
D1 Section 12.2
Internal feedback: sensory input data resulting from the corresponding internal response to motor function and its outcomes.
External feedback: explicit data provided by external validators such as a coach, video playback or readings on measuring implements.
Section 13. Macronutrients
1. Describe carbohydrates. (pg. 477).
D1 Section 13.1
Primary energy source macronutrients that include sugars, starches, and fiber.
2. Define the different types of carbohydrates. (pg. 477):
D1 Section 13.2
|Monosaccharide||A single unit of sugar. E.g. fructose, glucose.|
|Disaccharides||A double sugar molecule. E,g lactose, sucrose and maltose.|
|Complex polysaccharide found in plant tissue. Assists in gut health, glucose uptake regulation, and the nourishment of gut microbiota.|
|Soluble fiber dissolves in water.|
|Insoluble fiber remains solid/in suspension in water.|
|Glucose||The most basic molecular structure of a carbohydrate|
|Glycogen||Carbohydrate storage unit stored in liver and muscle tissue|
3. What is the Glycemic index? (pg. 478)
D1 Section 13.3
*Insert GI diagram
4. Describe Lipids. (pg. 485):
D1 Section 13.4
Lipids are organic compounds made of glycerol and fatty acids that are hydrophobic. They include oils, fats, waxes, and steroids and contain roughly twice the energy yield per unit mass of carbohydrates.
5. Define the different types of lipids. (pg. 485):
D1 Section 13.5
|Triglyceride||The most common lipid structure consists of glycerol and 3 fatty acids.|
|Saturated Fat||A lipid where all the fatty acid chains have single bonds. Solid at ambient temperature.|
|Trans-fat||Hydrogenated unsaturated fat used for large scale industrial food production. Knowl to pose tremendous health risks|
|A lipid where one or more double bond in the fatty acid chain|
|A lipid with only one double bond|
|A lipid with more than one double bond|
6. Give examples of food sources of these 3 lipid types. (pg. 486):
D1 Section 13.6
|Saturated Fat||Meat, dairy products, coconut oil|
|Monounsaturated fat||tree nuts, flaxseed, sunflower seeds|
|Polyunsaturated fat||Fatty fish, olive oil|
7. Define Protein. (pg. 468):
D1 Section 13.7
A nitrogen-based organic molecule comprised of one or more amino acid chains.
8. Define Amino Acids. (pg. 468):
D1 Section 13.8
Sub Molecules of proteins containing amine and carboxyl groups.
9. What are Essential Amino Acids? (pg. 468)
D1 Section 13.9
Amino acids that are both necessary to normal life function and cannot be naturally produced in the body. They must therefore be ingested through an inclusive diet.
10. What are Non-essential Amino Acids? (pg. 469)
D1 Section 13.10
Amino acids that are either unnecessary to normal health, or are necessary, but are naturally produced in adequate quantities and don’t need to be ingested through an inclusive diet.
11. What is a Complete Protein? (pg 471)
D1 Section 13.11
A protein or protein source that includes all essential amino acids.
12. What is an incomplete protein? (pg. 471):
D1 Section 13.12
A protein or protein source that does not possess all necessary amino acids.
m. *insert protein use diagram
Section 14. Micronutrients
1. What are micronutrients? (pg. 505-508):
D1 Section 14.1
Inorganic molecules that drive important life functions and are only needed in trace quantities. These include vitamins and minerals.
2. What is toxicity? (pg. 503):
D1 Section 14.2
A substance’s ability to have a negative impact on health.
Section 15. Hydration
a. What approximate percentage of the body is made of water? (pg. 490):
D1 Section 15.1
2. What is the daily recommended water intake for men and what is it for women? (pg. 491):
D1 Section 15.2
2.2 L for women and 3 L for men.
3. What is a benefit of drinking cold water? (pg. 657):
D1 Section 15.3
It assists in digestive health.
4. What should one drink during exercise that exceeds 1 hour? (pg. 657):
D1 Section 15.4
A beverage containing up to 8% carbohydrates.
5. For an overweight person, how much extra water is recommended for every 25lbs overweight? (pg. 490):
D1 Section 15.5
6. What are two adverse effects of dehydration? (pg. 491):
D1 Section 15.6
Fatigue decreased performance and circulatory deficiency.
Section 16. Recommendations and Guidelines for Caloric Intake and Expenditure
1. What is a calorie (lower case c)? (pg. 465):
D1 Section 16.1
The amount of heat energy required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree Celsius.
2. What is the resting metabolic rate (RMR)? (pg. 466):
D1 Section 16.2
Amount of energy expended during rest and inactivity.
3. What is the thermic effect of food (TEF)? (pg. 466):
D1 Section 16.3
The energy expended through the process of digestion accounting for 6-10% of total expenditure.
4. What is the estimated amount of energy expended through deliberate physical activity? (pg. 467):
D1 Section 16.4
Approximately 20% of total energy.
5. List the macronutrient intake requirements. (pg. 493 – 494):
D1 Section 16.5
|6-10 g/kg/day||20-35% oftotal dietary intake||Sedentary adults: 0.8 g/kg/day|
|28-38g from fiber||Strength athletes: 1.2-1.7 g/kg/day|
|45-65% of diet||Endurance athletes: 1.2-1.4 g/kg/day|
|10-35% of the diet|
6. List the 3 ideal protocols when using carbs for performance. (pg. 495):
D1 Section 16.6
- High carb consumption two to four hours before physical activity
- Consume 1,5 grams of carbs per kg of body weight to maximize glycogen reserves
- For activity lasting more than 1 hour, consume 30 – 60 grams of carbs per hour
Section 17. Dietary Reference Intakes
1. Define dietary reference intakes (DRIs). (pg. 510):
D1 Section 17.1
The guidelines for the ideal intake of a given nutrient.
2. Define the recommended dietary allowance (RDA). (pg. 505):
D1 Section 17.2
The mean daily nutritional requirements for an individual of normal health.
3. Tolerable upper intake (UL). (pg. 505):
D1 Section 17.3
The maximum intake level with no perceived health risks.
4. What is adequate intake (AI)? (pg. 505):
D1 Section 17.4
The ideal recommended nutrient intake for individuals of normal health.
Section 18. Portion Sizes, Meal Timing, and Frequency
1. List the daily recommendations for different health goals. (pg. 475):
D1 Section 18.1
|Weight Loss||Hypertrophy/Lean Mass||General Health|
|No more than 10% fat||Eat 4 to 6 meals per day||Incorporate low GI carbs|
|Distribute all macronutrients through the day||Spread protein intake through the day|
|Consume four to 6 meals per day to control hunger and cravings||Consume carbs and protein within 90 minutes of physical activity for optimal protein synthesis|
|Avoid calorically-dense processed foods||Maintain healthy ratios of carbs and fats|
|Hydrate with approx 9 to 13 cups of water/day|
|Measure food portions|
|Seek professional supervision for diets under 1200 kcal|
Section 19. Common Nutritional Supplements
1. What is an ergogenic aid? (pg. 515):
D1 Section 19.1
A substance or drug used in athletic performance enhancement.
2. Where is creatine made? (pg. 516):
D1 Section 19.2
Made in the body via the ATP-PC system.
3. What are the main benefits of creatine supplementation? (pg. 516 ):
D1 Section 19.3
Can boost anaerobic performance and strength output during exercise. Can increase muscle mass over the long term.
4. What is the recommended pre-workout consumption of caffeine for an increase in performance? (pg. 516):
D1 Section 19.4
Consuming g 3-6mg/kg of body weight 1 hour before physical activity has been shown to improve performance.
5. What status do prohormones and anabolic steroids have in competitive sport? (pg. 517):
D1 Section 19.5
They are categorically illegal and prohibited by the World Anti-Doping Agency.
Section 1. The PAR-Q
1. List the 3 purposes of the PAR-Q. (pg. 110 ):
D2 Section 1.1
- Determines risk level of exercise for an individual
- Identifies the need for medical evaluation in an individual
- Leads to physician referral if the answer is yes to one or more of the questions
Section 2. Elements of Personal, Occupational, and Family Medical History
1. What are the risks associated with extended periods of sitting? (pg. 111):
D2 Section 2.1
Tightening on the hip flexors, weakening of posterior chain muscles (rounded shoulders and forward head).
2. What are the risks associated with repetitive movement patterns: (pg. 111):
D2 Section 2.2
Can lead to pattern overload and overuse injuries.
3. What are the risks associated with overwearing of dress shoes? (pg. 112):
D2 Section 2.3
The sustained plantar-flexion can lead to tight calf muscles, leading to overpronation and weakened dorsiflexion.
4. What risks are elevated due to mental stress (pg. 112):
D2 Section 2.4
- Cardiovascular disease
- Respiratory complications
5. What risks are elevated due to past risks/injuries: (pg. 113):
D2 Section 2.5
- Future re-injury
- Neural overcompensation
- Loss of neural control
- Altered neural control
6. What common medications can affect exercise performance: (pg. 115):
D2 Section 2.6
Beta-blockers, heart and blood pressure medication.
7. What chronic conditions can affect exercise performance? (pg. 115):
D2 Section 2.7
Arthritis, asthma, diabetes, hypertension, obesity, cardiovascular conditions, stroke, cancer and pregnancy.
Section 3. Cardiorespiratory Assessments
1. What are cardiorespiratory assessments used to determine? (pg. 129 – 130):
D2 Section 3.1
Used to estimate an individual’s VO2max.
2. How do you calculate the maximal heart rate? List the two methods and indicate which is more accurate (pg. 119):
D2 Section 3.2
- The straight percentage method calculated as: HRmax = 220 – age
- The regression formula, calculated as: HRmax = 208 – (0.7 × age)
The straight percentage formula is an easier calculation, while the regression formula gives a more accurate reading.
3. What is the process involved in the YMCA 3-minute step test: (pg. 130):
D2 Section 3.3
- Execute 96 steps/minute, on a 12-inch step, over a 3 minute period.
- Take a 60-second recovery pulse within 5 seconds of stopping
- Refer to the chart on page 130 of the textbook and match recovery pulse to it
- Assign the correct heart rate zone:
- Zone 1: poor – fair
- Zone 2: average – good
- Zone 3: very good
4. What is the process involved in the Rockport walk test? (pg. 131):
D2 Section 3.4
- Document weight
- 1-mile treadmill walk
- Document time
- Record heart rate immediately after
- Use the VO2 formula to calculate the VO2 score
- Use the chart on textbook page 132 to match score with age and sex
- Assign the correct heart rate zones
- Zone 1: poor – fair
- Zone 2: average – good
- Zone 3: very good
Section 4. Physiological Assessments
1. How do you measure the radial pulse? (pg. 118):
D2 Section 4.1
Place index and middle fingers on the wrist proximal to the thumb.
2. How do you measure the carotid pulse? (pg. 118):
D2 Section 4.2
Less preferred for clients, more suitable for emergency first response, located on the side of the neck.
3. What is the resting heart rate (RHR) and how do you determine it? (pg. 118):
D2 Section 4.3
The heart rate experienced at rest. It can be determined as an average of 3 consecutive morning heart rate readings.
4. What is the average RHR for men and for women? (pg. 58):
D2 Section 4.4
Ave RHR men: 70bpm. Ave RHR women: 75bpm. The healthy adult range sits between 70 – 80 bpm.
5. What are the two blood pressure readings and what is their healthy range: (pg. 120):
D2 Section 4.5
- Systolic: maximum arterial pressure which occurs during cardiac contraction. Health normal of up to 120 mm Hg
- Diastolic: minimum arterial pressure which occurs during cardiac relaxation. Healthy normal of up to 90 mm Hg
Section 5. Static Postural Assessment
1. What are the kinetic chain checkpoints? (pg. 137):
D2 Section 5.1
The body’s main joint regions such as knees, elbows, ankles, wrists, head/neck, LPHC, and shoulder girdle.
2. Complete the postural assessment charts below? (pg. 133):
D2 Section 5.2
insert postural assessment charts.
Section 6. Assessments from Adjacent Professionals
1. What is cholesterol? (pg. 5):
D2 Section 6.1
Cholesterol is a lipid derivative found in the blood and produced in the liver.
2. Define HDL and LDL cholesterol, their differences, and their contribution to general health? (pg. 5, 485-486):
D2 Section 6.2
HDL is high-density lipoprotein and is a form of cholesterol considered beneficial for health. LDL is low-density lipoprotein and has been linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
3. What is the healthy total cholesterol level: (pg. 5):
D2 Section 6.3
A level of no more than 200 mg/dL.
Section 7. Body Composition Assessments
1. How do you classify an overweight person? (pg. 4, 129):
D2 Section 7.1
Any person whose weight sits at no less than 25 lbs above their ideal weight for their height, or anyone with a BMI of 25 to 29.9.
2. How do you classify obesity (pg. 4, 129):
D2 Section 7.2
A BMI of at least 30 is classified as obese.
3. How is a skin-fold measurement conducted? (pg. 424):
D2 Section 7.3
The use of skinfold calipers is implemented at four body sites, these being:
- Biceps (vertical fold)
- Triceps (vertical fold)
- Subscapular (45° fold)
- Iliac crest(45° fold).
These measurements are taken on the right side of the body, followed by input into the Durnin-Womersley formula for a final body fat estimate.
4. How do you calculate fat mass? (pg. 121):
D2 Section 7.4
Fat mass is calculated as the product of body fat % and total scale weight.
5. How do you calculate lean body mass? (pg. 126):
D2 Section 7.5
Lean mass is calculated as the total scale weight minus the fat mass.
6. How does bioelectrical impedance work? (pg. 122):
D2 Section 7.6
An electric current is sent through the body and used to determine total fat mass.
7. How does underwater weighing work? (pg. 122)?
D2 Section 7.7
Underwater weighing uses the principle that fat mass is more buoyant than lean mass.
8. How do circumference measurements work: (pg. 126):
D2 Section 7.8
Measurements based on changes in girth of several sites such as ankles, chest, waist, hips, calves, and neck. Considered inaccurate.
9. How do you measure using the waist-to-hip ratio? (pg. 128):
D2 Section 7.9
The waist circumference is divided by the width of the hips. A ratio no less than 0.8 for females and one of no less than 0.95 for males indicates the potential for obesity-related risk factors.
10. What is body mass index (BMI)? (pg. 128):
D2 Section 7.10
The weight to height ratio of a person. The higher the BMI, the more likely a person is overweight or obese, the lower the BMI, the more likely they are underweight.
Section 8. Performance Assessments
1. Define the following performance assessments. (pg. 150):
D2 Section 8.1
|Davies test||An agility and stability test for the upper body|
|Shark skill test||Neuromuscular control and agility test for the lower body|
|Bench press test||Determines upper-body maximal strength (1 rep max)|
|Squat test||Determines lower body maximal strength (1 rep max)|
|Push-up test||Determines upper body muscular endurance|
|LEFT test||Determines acceleration, deceleration agility, and neuromuscular control|
Section 9. Dynamic Postural Assessments
1. What is the overhead squat assessment? (OHSA) (pg. 139):
D2 Section 9.1
Analyses posture through movement to determine any movement dysfunctions, imbalances or deviations.
2. Complete the OHSA solutions table below. (pg. 144):
D2 Section 9.2
|View||Kinetic Chain Checkpoint||Compensation||Overactive muscles||Underactive muscles|
|Lateral||LPHC||Pronounced forward lean||Soleus||Anterior tibialis|
|Hip flexor complex||Erector spinae|
|Anterior pelvic tilt||Hip flexor||Gluteus maximus|
|Erector spinae||Hamstring complex|
|Latissimus dorsi||Intrinsic core stabilizers|
|Posterior pelvic tilt||Hamstring complex||Intrinsic core stabilizers|
|Rectus abdominis||Gluteus maximus|
|Upper body||Arms shit forwards||Latissimus dorsi||Middle / lower trapezius|
|Pectoralis major/minor||Rotator cuff|
|Anterior||Feet||Turn out||Soleus||Medial gastrocnemius|
|Lateral gastrocnemius||Medial hamstring complex|
|Biceps femoris (short head)||Gracilis|
|Knees||Move inwards||Adductor complex||Gluteus maximus|
|Gastrocnemius||Vastus medialis oblique (VMO)|
|Biceps femoris (short head)|
|Tensor fasciae latae (TFL)|
|Move outwards||Soleus||Gluteus maximus|
|Biceps femoris (short head)||Medial hamstring complex|
3. What does the single leg squat assessment identify? (pg. 143):
D2 Section 9.3
Assess for the level of ankle proprioception core stability and strength and hip stability and strength.
4. Complete the single leg squat assessment solutions table below. (pg. 144):
D2 Section 9.4
|View||Kinetic Chain Checkpoint||Compensation||Overactive muscles||Under-active muscles|
|Anterior||Knees||Move Inward||Adductor complex||Gluteus medius|
|Biceps femoris||Gluteus maximus|
|TFL||Vastus medialis oblique|
5. What does the pushing assessment identify? (pg. 146):
D2 Section 9.5
Assess for level of efficiency and identify potential imbalances during pushing movements.
6. Complete the pushing assessment solutions table below. (pg. 148):
D2 Section 9.6
|View||Kinetic Chain Checkpoint||Compensation||Overactive muscles||Underactive muscles|
|Lateral||LPHC||Low back arches||Hip flexors||Intrinsic core stabilizers|
|Shoulder complex||Shoulder elevation||Upper trapezius||Mid trapezius|
|Head||Protrudes||Upper trapezius||Deep cervical flexors|
7. What does the pulling assessment identify? (pg. 148 ):
D2 Section 9.7
Assess for the level of efficiency and identifies potential imbalances during pulling movements.
8. Complete the pulling assessment solutions table below. (pg. 150):
D2 Section 9.8
|View||Kinetic Chain Checkpoint||Compensation||Overactive muscles||Underactive muscles|
|Lateral||LPHC||Lower Back Arches||Hip flexors||Intrinsic core stabilizers|
|Shouldercomplex||Shoulder elevation||Upper trapezius||Mid trapezius|
|Head||Protrudes||Upper trapezius||Deep cervicalSternocleidomastoid flexors|
9. What does the gait assessment identify? (pg. 649):
D2 Section 9.9
Assess for level of efficiency and identify potential imbalances during walking and running.
10. Complete the gait assessment solutions table below. (pg. 651):
D2 Section 9.10
|ViewCheckpoint||Compensation||Overactive muscles||Underactive Muscles|
|Feet||Flatten||Peroneal complex||Anterior tibialis|
|Lateral gastrocnemius||Posterior tibialis|
|Biceps femoris (short head)||Medial gastrocnemius|
|Turn out||Soleus||Medial gastrocnemius|
|Lateral gastrocnemius||Medial hamstring|
|Biceps femoris (short head)||Gluteus medius/maximus|
|Knees||Move inward||Adductor complex||Medial hamstring|
|Biceps femoris (short head)||Medial gastrocnemius|
|Lateral gastrocnemius||Vastus medialis oblique|
|Vastus lateralis||Anterior tibialis|
|LPHC||Low back arch||Hip flexor complex||Gluteus maximus|
|Erector spinae||Intrinsic core stabilizers|
|Excessive rotation||Hamstrings||Gluteus medius/maximus|
|Intrinsic core stabilizers|
|Hip hike||Quadratus lumborum (opposite side)||Adductor complex (sameside)|
|TFL/gluteus minimus (same side)||Gluteus medius (same side)|
|Shoulders||Rounded||Pectorals||Middle and lower trapezius|
|Latissimus dorsi||Rotator cuff|
|Head||Forward||Upper trapezius||Deep cervical flexors|
Section 10. Performing Assessments with Special Populations
1. Which assessments should be avoided and which are ideal for pregnant women? (pg. 450 – 451):
D2 Section 10.1
A modification of the single-leg squat assessment to a single leg balance assessment as well as a reduction in ROM of the overhead squat. Push up an assessment to pivot off the knees instead of feet. Avoid power and impact based exercises and assessments.
2. What is the ideal assessment protocol for an obese person? (pg. 425 – 427):
D2 Section 10.2
For cardio assessment, the Rockport walk test is the ideal assessment. Institute a single leg balance test instead of the single-leg squat and implement the push-up test with the knees as the pivot and an elevation for the hands such as a bench.
Section 11. Indicators that a Client’s Condition is Outside Scope of Practice
1. List four areas that fall outside a fitness professional’s scope of practice. (pg. 463):
D2 Section 11.1
- Medical diagnosis
- Prescription of pharmaceuticals and treatment of any medical condition
- Diet prescription and therapy
- Psychoanalysis, psychotherapy, or mental health counseling
Section 12. Criteria For Reassessment
1. Which four scenarios present an ideal necessity for reassessment? (pg. 366):
D2 Section 12.1
- After a four week period where changes in programming are occurring
- After notable indications of improvement
- When new goals have been identified and selected by the client
- When notable changes in lifestyle behaviors occur such as dietary, career, relinquishing of previous addictions, etc…
2. Describe corrective flexibility training and identify which training phase it should be implemented. (pg. 173):
D2 Section 12.2
Corrective flexibility should be implemented in phase 1 of training and helps increase ROM, addresses imbalances and corrects deviated movement patterns.
3. Describe active flexibility training and identify which training phase(s) it should be implemented? (pg. 173):
D2 Section 12.3
Best implemented at phases 2, 3, and 4. It helps promote improved neuromuscular efficiency, soft tissue extensibility and reciprocal inhibition.
4. Describe functional flexibility and identify which training phase(s) it should be implemented. (pg. 173):
D2 Section 12.4
Best implemented at phase 5 of training. This type of flexibility promotes and maintains integrated, multiplanar soft tissue extensibility while optimizing neuromuscular control.
5. Describe the self-myofascial release? (pg. 174):
D2 Section 12.5
Gentle massaging motions using a ridgid, smooth implement such as a foam roller to ease and release knots in the muscle tissue. This relieves tension and autogenic inhibition.
6. Describe static stretching: (pg. 174):
D2 Section 12.6
Stretching muscle just past the comfortable tension limit and holding the extension for at least 30 seconds.
7. Describe active-isolated stretching (pg. 175):
D2 Section 12.7
Dynamic movement of joints into an ROM by agonists and synergists.
8. Describe dynamic stretching. (pg. 175):
D2 Section 12.8
Uses momentum and production of force to move joints through a full ROM.
Section 1. Resistance Training Systems
1. Describe single-set training. (pg. 314):
D3 Section 1.1
Training one set per exercise. This is an ideal protocol for beginners.
2. Describe multiple-set training. (pg. 315):
D3 Section 1.2
Multiple sets per exercise.
3. Describe pyramid training. (pg. 315):
D3 Section 1.3
Training where the intensity increases or decreases progressively with each set.
4. Describe superset training. (pg. 315):
D3 Section 1.4
Performing two consecutive sets of exercises with very little to no rest in-between.
5. Describe circuit training. (pg. 316):
D3 Section 1.5
Performing multiple exercises with little rest between sets.
6. Describe peripheral heart action training. (pg. 316):
D3 Section 1.6
A circuit training variation that alternates upper and lower body training for optimized circulation.
7. What is split-routine training? (pg. 317):
D3 Section 1.7
Compartmentalizing training focus between upper and lower body and dedicating entire sessions accordingly.
8. Describe what is meant by vertical loading. (pg. 318):
D3 Section 1.8
Alternating training focus between upper and lower body with each set.
9. Describe what is meant by horizontal loading. (pg. 318):
D3 Section 1.9
Focusing on all exercises for one body segment then moving onto the next within one session.
Section 2. Resistance Training Methods
1. In the table below fill in the recommended training methods for each of the OPT model’s steps and phases, also providing examples of appropriate exercises. (pg. 310 – 312):
D3 Section 2.1
|4/2/1 tempo, lower weight, and higher reps in an unstable, but controlled, environment||2/0/2 tempo, moderate to heavyweight, low to moderate reps with full ROM||Explosive tempo, light weight,moderate reps with full ROM|
|Ball squat, curl to press||Lunge to two-arm dumbbellpress||Two-arm medicine ball chestpass|
|Multiplanar step-up balance,curl, to overhead press||Squat to two-arm press||Rotation chest pass|
|Ball dumbbell chest press||Two-arm push press||Ball medicine ball pulloverthrow|
|Pushup||Barbell clean||Wood chop throw|
|Standing cable row||Flat dumbbell chest press||Medicine ball scoop toss(shoulders)|
|Ball dumbbell row||Barbell bench press||Medicine ball side obliquethrow|
|Single-leg dumbbell scaption||Seated cable row||Squat jump|
|Seated stability ball militarypress||Seated lat pull||Tuck jump|
|Single-leg dumbbell curl||Seated dumbbell shoulderpress|
|Single-leg barbell curl||Seated shoulder pressmachine|
|Supine ball dumbbell tricepsextension||Seated two-arm dumbbellbiceps curls|
|Prone ball dumbbell tricepsextension||Biceps curl machine|
|Ball squat||Cable pushdowns|
|Multiplanar step-up tobalance||Supine bench barbell tricepsextension|
Section 3. Cardiorespiratory Training Methods
1. Describe stage-training. (pg. 215):
D3 Section 3.1
Cardio training instituted in a progressive manner so as to avoid injury and over-training.
b. What are the characteristics of stage l training. (pg. 215):
D3 Section 3.2
Characterized by initial cardio activation for sedentary individuals. Implemented at HR zone 1. Starts slow and progresses up to about 30-60 mins of training.
c. What are the characteristics of stage ll training? (pg. 216):
D3 Section 3.3
Characterized by cardio progress for intermediate level individuals. Implemented at HR zone 2 intervals, with HR zone 1 for recovery. 1 min zone 2:3 min zone 1 (1:3 work/rest ratio).
d. What are the characteristics of stage lll training (pg. 217)?
D3 Section 3.4
Characterized by cardio progress for advanced level individuals. Implemented at HR zone 3 intervals, with HR zone 2 for recovery and HR zone 1 as a warm-up. 1 min zone 3:1 min zone 2 (1:1 work/rest ratio).
Section 4. Core Training Methods
1. Why is it important to implement core and stability training? (pg. 227 ):
D3 Section 4.1
For effective global stability of all movement chains through the body. Develops local stabilization muscles, muscle balance and correct transfer of force.
2. Describe what is meant by a “drawing-in maneuver” . (pg. 229, 230):
D3 Section 4.2
Core stabilizer recruitment activated by pulling the navel towards the spine (local stabilization).
3. Describe what is meant by “bracing”. (pg. 229, 230):
D3 Section 4.3
Stabilizing the LHPC through contraction of the anterior and posterior core muscles as well as the glutes (global stabilization).
4. Fill in the diagram below. (pg. 9-10, 133, 150, 251):
D3 Section 4.4
*insert optimal neuromuscular control diagram
Section 5. Balance Training Methods
1. Detail four benefits of balance training. (pg. 249):
D3 Section 5.1
- Develops awareness of balance limit/threshold
- Optimizes synchronicity and synergy of muscle firing patterns in turn improving joint stability.
- Combines functional training with proprioceptive activation.
- Maximizes sensory input to CNS, in turn, maximizes the efficiency of relevant motor response.
Section 6. Proprioceptive Manipulation
. List six proprioceptive progressions. (pg. 231):
D3 Section 6.1
- Stable to unstable
- Static to dynamic
- Slow to fast
- Two limbs to single limbs
- Open eyes to closed eyes
- Known to unknown
2. List six progressive body positions. (pg. 231):
D3 Section 6.2
- Lateral lying
- Half- kneeling
3. List the four standing progressions. (pg. 231):
D3 Section 6.3
- Two legs
- Single leg
- Two leg (unstable)
- Single leg (unstable)
4. List 6 proprioceptive apparatus/modalities. (pg. 231):
D3 Section 6.4
- Solid floor
- Balance beam
- Half foam roll
- Foam pad
- Balance disk
- Wobble disk
Section 7. Plyometric Training Methods
1. Define plyometric training. (pg. 270):
D3 Section 7.1
Power focused movement training consisting of an eccentric phase for potential energy development followed by an explosive concentric phase.
b. Define the Amortization phase. (pg. 272):
D3 Section 7.2
Transitional phase between eccentric and concentric action during a plyometric movement. The shorter the transition phase, the more powerful the movement.
Section 8. SAQ Training Methods
1. What does “SAQ” stand for and what does each element entail? (pg. 289 – 292):
D3 Section 8.1
Speed Agility and Quickness. Relates dynamic reactivity and ability to accelerate, decelerate and change position and direction in all planes of motion while maintaining dynamic stability.
2. What is the primary SAQ training method? (pg. 294):
D3 Section 8.2
Cone and agility ladder drills.
Section 9. Exercise Progression/Regression
1. Why is exercise progression/regression important? (pg. 14):
D3 Section 9.1
Allows for managed progress and development of skills.
Section 10. General Adaptation Syndrome
1. Define General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS). (pg. 304):
D3 Section 10.1
The body’s 3 stage response to stress. The stages are alarm, resistance development and exhaustion.
2. What is “alarm reaction”? (pg. 305):
D3 Section 10.2
The primary response to a stressor which leads to engagement of protective systems.
3. What is “resistance development”? (pg. 305):
D3 Section 10.3
Functional adaptation to the stressor leading to tolerance of that current level of stress.
4. Describe exhaustion as it relates to GAS. (pg. 306):
D3 Section 10.4
Sustained stress over an excessive period or intensity leads to system failure and break down of adaptation.
Section 11. Principle of Specificity
1. Define and describe the “SAID” principle. (pg. 307):
D3 Section 11.1
Stands for Specific Adaptation to Imposed Demands. This refers to the fact that exposing the body to specific stressors through training will lead to an adaptation that matches those specific demands.
2. Describe what is meant by mechanical specificity. (pg. 308):
D3 Section 11.2
The specific forces and direction through which they are applied.
3. Describe what is meant by neuromuscular specificity. (pg. 308):
D3 Section 11.3
The sensory inputs and and the corresponding motor responses.
d. Describe what is meant by metabolic specificity. (pg. 308):
D3 Section 11.4
The energy demands and biochemical activity relevant to the specific demands.
Section 12. Principle of Overload
1. Describe the principle of progressive overload. (pg. 305):
D3 Section 12.1
Training stimuli and demands must be progressively elevated through an increase in intensity and/or volume in order to promote sustained optimization of adaptation.
Section 13. Principle of Variation
1. Describe two ways in which the principle of variation can assist in achieving training outcomes. (pg. 367):
D3 Section 13.1
The principle works by reducing risk of exhaustion while maintaining ideal overload and maximizing kinetic chain stimulation.
Section 14. Periodization Concepts
1. Define periodization. (pg. 365):
D3 Section 14.1
Dividing training into specific periods called cycles designed to optimise adampation both over long term and short term periods.
2. Describe an ideal periodized training plan. (pg. 353 – 354):
D3 Section 14.2
A training plan split into weekly, monthly, and annual cycles that progress from high volume, low-intensity workouts to low volume, high-intensity workouts.
3. Describe undulating periodization as it applies to the OPT model. (pg. 385):
D3 Section 14.3
Progressively changing the OPT phases as the program runs while still adhering to recovery protocols.
Section 15. Acute Variables
1. Define intensity. (pg. 357):
D3 Section 15.1
Level of effort or resistive force required to perform an exercise.
2. Define volume. (pg. 360):
D3 Section 15.2
Quantity of complete efforts or repetitions in given time required to complete an exercise set or workout session.
3. Complete the “FITTE” principle chart below. (pg. 208 – 214):
D3 Section 15.3
|F||Frequency:Total number of training sessions per unit time|
|I||Intensity: Level of effort required to successfully perform exercises|
|T||Time: The period in which training occurs|
|T||Type: The nature of physical activity engaged|
|E||Enjoyment: the amount of pleasure derived for performing the exercise or workout|
4. List 3 outcomes of high volume (low intensity) adaptation. (pg. 361):
D3 Section 15.4
- Healthy cholesterol balance
- Improved metabolism
5. List 3 outcomes of low volume (high intensity) adaptation. (pg. 361):
D3 Section 15.5
- Strength increase
- Increased recruitment of motor units
- Optimized synchronicity of motor units
Section 16. Modality Risks and Rewards
1. Define bodyweight training. (pg. 401 – 403):
D3 Section 16.1
Training using one’s own physical mass as a training load through all planes of motion.
2. Describe suspension training as well as some of the apparatus involved. (pg. 403 – 405):
D3 Section 16.2
Using ropes and webbing to create a proprioceptively rich training environment.
3. Describe free weights and implements training as well as some of the apparatus involved. (pg. 394 – 396):
D3 Section 16.3
Movement of external load through multiple planes of motion while anchoring to a stable base. E.g. dumbbells, barbells, kettle-bells, medicine balls and sandbags.
4. When are strength training machines most ideal (pg. 392 – 393)?
D3 Section 16.4
Ideal for beginners with limited stability adaptation and ROM.
5. Describe proprioceptive modalities and some of the apparatus involved (pg. 406 – 408):
D3 Section 16.5
Proprioceptive modalities are used to create instability during exercise thus leading to a proprioceptively rich training environment that causes adaptations towards balance and stability. Equipment includes an unstable surface of the apparatus.
Section 17. Overtraining, Rest, and Recovery
1. What are the eight common signs of overtraining syndrome. (pg. 215, 306, 678)?
D3 Section 17.1
- Performance decline
- Irregular sleep patterns
- Reproductive health issues
- Compromised immunity
- Unstable mood
- Appetite decrease
- Hormonal imbalance
Section 18. Current Trends and Their Application to Training
1. List four benefits of incorporating mobile apps (pg. 657):
D3 Section 18.1
- Provides constant, sustained guidance and feedback
- Can manage and assess all variables
- Allows for remote client management
- Optimized nutritional management
2. List 3 benefits of incorporating activity trackers. (pg. 658):
D3 Section 18.2
- Provides exercise data and feedback
- Monitors vitals and sleep habits
- Provides information on progress and incentivises it
3. List 5 benefits of incorporating social media. (pg. 658):
D3 Section 18.3
- Powerful marketing tool for services
- PR and reputation management
- Provide value through information and useful content
- Inspire clients and prospects
- Network with peers and collaborators. Study and learn from competitors
4. Name an important emerging technology. (pg. 658-659):
D3 Section 18.4
Wearable fitness trackers.
Section 19. Program Design for Special Populations
1. Complete the Youth Training Considerations table below. (pg. 292, 419, 421):
D3 Section 19.1
|Mode||Moderate cardio (jogging, walking, running), sports and games. Resistance training|
|Intensity||Moderate to vigorous|
|Frequency||5 to 7 days per week (cardio)|
|Duration||No more than 1 hour per day|
|Flexibility||Adhere to OPT flexibility protocols|
|Resistance Training||Frequency: 2-3 days/ weekSets: 1-5 setsRepetitions: 3-30/setIntensity: 45%-85% of 1-RM|
|Special Considerations||Activity should be enjoyable and based on the quality of postural control and less on intensity|
2. Complete the Older Adult Training Considerations table below. (pg. 420, 423):
D3 Section 19.2
|Mode||Stationary cycling, treadmill with handrail, aquatic aerobics|
|Intensity||40-85% of VO2max|
|Frequency||3-5 days/week moderate, 3 days/week vigorous|
|Duration||30-60 mins/day. 8-10 min bursts|
|Flexibility||SMR and static stretching exercises|
|Resistance Training||Frequency: 3-5 days/ weekSets: 1-3 setsRepetitions: 8-20/setIntensity: 40-80% 1-RM|
|Special Considerations||Slow and well-monitored progress.|
Progress exercises toward free sitting or standing.
Regular breathing avoiding Valsalva maneuver
Implement slow, active, or dynamic stretching in case SMR or static stretching is poorly received.
3. Complete the Pregnancy Training Considerations table below (pg. 450 – 452):
D3 Section 19.3
|Mode||Low impact cardio (treadmill, stationary bike) no sudden or jarring motions|
|Intensity||Stage 1 cardio. Stage 2 if medically cleared|
|Frequency||3-5 days/week cardio|
|Flexibility||SMR, static and active-isolated stretching|
|Resistance Training||Frequency: 2-3 days per week|
Sets: follow OPT Phase
Repetitions: 12-15 per setIntensity: light loads
Only OPT Phases 1 and 2 advised; use the only Phase 1 after the first trimester.
|Special Considerations||No prone or supine exercises beyond the 12th week of pregnancy.|
No SMR on varicose vein regions and swollen areas.
No plyometric exercises during the second and third trimesters.
No power or speed assessment.
Pivot push up assessment from knees instead of feet.
Change the single-leg squat to a single leg balance assessment.
Reduce ROM for the overhead squat assessment.
4. Complete the Obesity Training Considerations table below. (pg. 424 – 426):
D3 Section 19.4
|Mode||Low impact cardio (treadmill, stationary bike) no sudden or jarring motions|
|Intensity||60-80% HRmax; can be adjusted to 40-70%; use talk test|
|Frequency||5-7 days/week cardio|
|Duration||40 – 60 mins/day. 2x 20-30min/day|
|Flexibility||Stretches performed seated or standing, use SMR if possible|
|Resistance Training||Frequency: 2-3 days/week.|
Sets: 1-3 sets.
Repetitions: 10-15 /set.
Intensity: follow OPT Phases
Implement circuit training for Phases 1 and 2
|Special Considerations||Exercise should be performed standing or seated when possible.|
Watch for other obesity-related chronic diseases.
Use the Rockport walk test for cardiac assessment.
Pivot push up assessment from knees instead of feet.
Test single-leg balance instead of single-leg squat assessment.
5. Complete the Hypertension Training Considerations table below. (pg. 432 – 435):
D3 Section 19.5
|Mode||Stationary cycling, treadmill walking, rowers|
|Intensity||50-85% HRmax, can adjust to 40-70%. Stage 1 cardio progressing to stage 2 cardio|
|Frequency||3-7 days/ week cardio|
|Flexibility||Static and active-isolated stretching; standing or seated|
|Resistance Training||Frequency: 2-3 days/week|
Sets: 1-3 sets
Intensity: Adhered to OPT Phase protocols, no more than 1 second for isometric and concentric muscle activity.
Implement circuit or PHA training systems with adequate recovery.
|Special Considerations||No heavy lifting or Valsalva maneuver.|
Avoid over-gripping weights or clenching fists during workouts.
Perform exercises in a standing or seated position.
Stand up slowly to avoid vertigo/dizziness.
6. Complete the Osteoporosis Training Considerations Table below. (pg. 440 – 443):
D3 Section 19.6
|Mode||Treadmill with handrail|
|Intensity||50-90% HRmax. Stage 1 cardio progressing to stage 2|
|Frequency||2-5 days/week cardio|
|Duration||20-60 min/day. 8 -10min bouts|
|Flexibility||Static and active-isolated stretching|
|Resistance Training||Frequency: 2-3 days/week|
Sets: 1-3 sets
Intensity: max of 85% 1-RM
|Special Considerations||Slow progress|
Progress to free sitting/standing if possible
Hips, thighs, back, and arms focal areas
Avoid excess loads on the spine
Avoid the Valsalva maneuver.
Section 1. Exercise Set-up and Technique
1. List 5 key tasks for the correct set-up and instruction of exercises. (pg. 362 – 364):
D4 Section 1.1
- Asses set-up and correct technique of all documented exercises
- Categorize all exercises
- Regress each exercise
- Progress each exercise
- Perform each exercise
2. What are 9 effects and benefits of a good warm-up? (pg. 203 – 205):
D4 Section 1.2
- Boost respiratory and heart rate
- Boosts cardiac output for exercise
- Boosts circulation to active muscles
- Boost oxygen uptake and use capacity
- Boosts temperature of active tissues
- Boosts rate of muscular contraction
- Boosts metabolic activity
- Boosts extensibility of soft tissue
- Boost mental focus and readiness for exercise
3. What is the difference between a general warm-up and a specific warm-up? (pg. 206 – 208):
D4 Section 1.3
Low-intensity movement unrelated to specific training activities would fall under general warm-up, while a specific warm-up would entail low-intensity movements that directly mimic the intended training activity.
4. Define a “cool-down” and how it is performed. (pg. 206):
D4 Section 1.4
Gradual 5-10 minute transition from active to steady-state utilizing light cardio, static stretching and SMR.
5. Describe triple extension/flexion and when it occurs. (pg. 290 – 655):
D4 Section 1.5
Concurrent extension or flexion of hip, knee, and ankle.
Section 2. Kinesthetic, Auditory, and Visual Cueing
1. What is sensory feedback and what are its effects? (pg. 102, 681):
D4 Section 2.1
The information produced by sensory input and sensorimotor integration that leads to permanent pattern development.
2. What are the differences between external and internal feedback: (pg. 102):
D4 Section 2.2
External feedback is provided explicitly by external mediators while internal feedback is tacit recognition of intrinsic effects/changes.
3. What are the two main types of external feedback? (pg. 102):
D4 Section 2.3
Audiovisual through and instructor or playback system and knowledge of results.
4. List 3 effective ways to explain an exercise to a client. (pg. 102):
D4 Section 2.4
- Tell (auditory cueing)
- Show (visual cueing)
- Direct (kinesthetic cueing)
Section 3. Safe Training Practices
a. What are the two most essential safety questions when preparing to train a client? (pg. 110):
D4 Section 3.1
- Is safe?
- Is a contraindication?
- Is an appropriate intensity?
- How many exercises?
- Sets and reps?
- Days per week?
Section 4. Safe and Effective Spotting Techniques
1. List five important safety and spotting considerations. (pg. 394):
D4 Section 4.1
- Determine total reps to be performed
- Only take weight where there is immediate danger of dropping
- Oly assist just enough to overcome” sticking point”
- Spot wrists and not elbows during dumbbell workouts
- Avoid spotting machine-based exercises by positioning your hands under the weight stack.
Section 5. Proper Breathing Technique
1. List 3 abnormal breathing features. (pg. 66):
D4 Section 5.1
- Shallow breathing may be due to use of secondary respiratory muscles instead of the diaphragm
- Respiratory muscle overactivity may result in headaches and dizziness
- Excessive breathing can lead to oxygen/CO2 imbalance and retention of waste molecules.
b. How would you advise a client to breathe in order to limit abnormal breathing patterns? (pg. 66):
D4 Section 5.2
Instruct breathing through the stomach in order to normalize.
*insert verbal communication diagram
Section 1. Communication Components
1. List five tips that can enhance the quality of communication. (pg. 532):
D5 Section 1.1
- Use of appropriate body language
- Provide an explanation of important concepts
- Show empathy and compassion
- Use positive reinforcement
- Use positive greeting protocols (smile, handshake. hello)
2. Describe non-verbal communication and how it takes effect. (pg. 533):
D5 Section 1.2
Visual and auditory expressions of intent and feeling that exist outside of written or spoken speech.
3. Define “active listening”. (pg. 533).
D5 Section 1.3
Practicing listening as an act of genuine interest.
4. Describe the differences between open-ended and closed-ended questions. (pg. 534):
D5 Section 1.4
Open-ended questions allow the questioned party to elaborate with detail. Close-ended questions only require a yes or no answer.
5. Define “reflecting” with regards to trainer-client communication (pg. 534).
D5 Section 1.5
Relaying back your interpretation of what the client has communicated.
6. Define “summarizing” with regards to trainer-client communication (pg. 534).
Section 2. SMART Goals
D5 Section 1.6
Making brief reflections of what has been communicated to indicate that information has been taken on board.
1. Complete the SMART Goals table below. (pg. 523, 529):
D5 Section 2.1
Section 3. Goal Expectation Management
1. List eight important considerations in goal expectation management. (pg. 529):
D5 Section 3.1
- Understand the client’s motivations
- Hone in and clarify vague statements like “I want to get fit” or “I want to look better”
- Allow clients to verbalize their goals for more clarity
- Identify unrealistic outcomes
- Set goals based on the SMART principles
- Be able to contrast between product and progress based goals
- Be aware that progress occurs at different rates for different clients
- Identify how and when each client’s goals will be reassessed and revisited
Section 4. Behavior Change Strategies
1. List and describe the seven behavioral change technique.s (pg. 523):
D5 Section 4.1
- Self-confidence: improving confidence improves adherence
- Motivational interviewing: a collaborative exercise that elicits personal, intrinsic motivation
- Autonomy: supportive coaching: a system that inspires the development of self-improvement
- Prompting: implementing signals and cues to elicit specific actions or behaviors
- Contracting: having the client write down their goals in order to codify their process
- Intrinsic approach: place emphasis on internal enjoyment and satisfaction of the process
- Cognitive-behavioral approaches: positive self-encouragement, social support, association/dissociation techniques
2. Label the “stages of change” diagram below. (pg. 526):
D5 Section 4.2
*insert stages of change diagram/chart
3. What are the four forms of support a trainer can implement? (pg. 537):
D5 Section 4.3
- Instrumental support in the form of practical applications and infrastructure
- Emotional support in the form of positive psychological reinforcement and encouragement
- Informational support in the form of facts and evidence that provide direction and indicate efficacy and reliability
- Companionship support in the form of positive social associations such as family and close friends
Section 5. Psychological Response to Exercise
1. List four potential psychological benefits of exercise. (pg. 547):
D5 Section 5.1
- Promotes positive mood
- Improves the quality and quantity of sleep
- Reduces stress
- Reduces indicators and risk factors of anxiety and depression
Section 6. Barriers to Behavior Change
1. List five common barriers to successful behavioral change. (pg. 540):
D5 Section 6.1
- Time constraints
- Setting unrealistic goals
- Inadequate social support
- Social anxiety and low seself-esteemConvenience or addictiveness of current behavioral patterns
Section 7. Client Expectation Management
1. What key topics should be discussed at the end of each initial session with a new client? (pg. 528):
D5 Section 7.1
- If the client is ready to begin or has any further questions/queries
- The social dynamics, etiquette, and training culture of the facility
- Dress code
- The potential outcomes of interactions with other clients/members
Section 1. Professional Guidelines and Standards
1. According to the NASM Code of Conduct, list four guidelines a trainer must adhere to protect the public and the profession. (pg. v – vi):
D6 Section 1.1
- Not diagnose or treat illness or injury unless for basic first aid or if the Certified Professional is legally licensed to do so and is working in that capacity at that time
- Not train clients with a diagnosed health condition unless the Certified Professional has been specifically trained to do so,
- Not begin to train a client prior to receiving and reviewing a current health-history questionnaire signed by the client.
- Hold a current cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) certification from a NASM-approved provider at all times
Section 2. Business Fundamentals
1. Describe “forecasting” as it applies to the business fundamentals of professional fitness. (pg. 557 – 561):
D6 Section 2.1
Making informed predictions based on previous performance indicators and existing trends.
2. List the 10 steps to business success in fitness. (pg. 565):
D6 Section 2.2
- Decide on an income figure
- Identify weekly earnings required for that goal
- Calculate the number of required weekly sessions
- Identify the required closing percentage
- Create client conversion timeline
- Identify the total number of interactions required based on the closing percentage
- Identify the required amount of daily interactions
- Do an hour by hour daily breakdown of interactions
- Make sure you obtain contact information
- Conduct follow-ups
Section 3. Marketing Concepts and Techniques
1. What are the 4 P’s of marketing in fitness? (pg. 558):
D6 Section 3.1
Section 4. Sales Concepts and Techniques
1. Define “prospecting”. (pg. 564 – 568):
D6 Section 4.1
Implementation of methods designed to search for new clients.
2. What are the 4 key steps to “asking for the sale”. (pg. 468):
D6 Section 4.2
- Be visible and available
- Be confident enough to ask for the sale
- Display value and quality of service. Market your personality as well as your product
- Remain is consistent contact with prospective and current clients
3. What are the ways you can overcome the objection to a sale? (pg. 568):
D6 Section 4.3
- Empathize with and understand the client’s concerns
- Isolate the actual drawbacks
- Remind the client of the benefits
- Make a plan to resolve concerns
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