Chapter 20: Principles of Speed, Agility, and Quickness Training

Speed, agility, and quickness (SAQ) are athletic performance-based skills that offer a variety of benefits to both athletes and the general fitness population alike.

Fitness professionals must be familiar with the concepts, techniques, and programming guidelines for SAQ training to offer these modalities as part of a comprehensive fitness program.

In the context of training general fitness clients, SAQ drills can be beneficial for a variety of client types. SAQ training should not replace resistance training in most situations but can be included in conjunction with resistance training.

Clients who engage in recreational sports can benefit tremendously from SAQ training, and it also provides additional variety and stimulus to a client’s training plan, regardless of their fitness goals.

The sub-skills in SAQ are distinct but related and should be progressed logically and appropriately to drive desirable adaptations.

SAQ Training Concepts

To understand SAQ training there are key concepts to understand as they will be an influencing factor in any SAQ training program.

Most SAQ movements can be broken down into three phases: acceleration, maximum speed, and deceleration.

Acceleration

In physics, acceleration refers to the rate speed increases with respect to time. In the context of SAQ, acceleration is the phase of a drill involving going from stopped or low speeds to maximal velocity.1

Maximum Speed

Maximal speed is the point during a sprint at which maximal power output is generated that results in the body moving horizontally at the maximum possible speed the individual can reach.2 Maximal speed is not necessarily reached during all SAQ drills, as for certain drills the distance covered is too short to achieve true peak speed.1

Deceleration

In physics, deceleration (also called negative acceleration) refers to the rate at which speed decreases with respect to time.1 In the context of SAQ, deceleration involves the act of reducing speed, often in preparation for a change of direction. Deceleration places a high degree of eccentric force on the body, and can also result in a plyometric effect when rapidly re-accelerating in another direction.

Ground Reaction Forces

Ground Reaction Forces (GRF) is the force exerted by the ground against the human body when the body is in contact with the ground.2 In SAQ, contact force is applied by the exerciser’s feet to the ground, and the ground reaction force pushes back against the feet. When standing still, the ground reaction force will equal the force of gravity pulling the individual’s body toward the Earth. During acceleration, sprinting, and deceleration, ground reaction forces exceed the normal gravitational force on the body.3

Changes of direction occur frequently during most field sports, with professional soccer players often performing 600-700 changes of direction per day. In the context of general fitness, change of direction skills are helpful for clients who engage in recreational sports to improve performance and reduce injury risks, assuming proper form is followed.

Rate of Force Development

As discussed in Principles of Plyometric Training, the rate of force development (RFD) is a measure of how quickly the body can generate force. 

RFD is influenced by a variety of factors including muscular strength and neural drive. Timed performance on SAQ drills will improve if RFD is improved, all factors remaining equal. Improvements to rate of force development are brought about through progressive SAQ training as well as resistance training and plyometric training. For maximum improvement to RFD, a combination of resistance, plyometric, and sprint training should be employed.5

Stretch Shortening Cycle

SAQ has a substantial plyometric component, and the stretch shortening (SSC) cycle plays a major role in the force production during SAQ activities.5 Improvements to the SSC result in greater force production when acceleration rapidly follows deceleration.

The deceleration is the eccentric component, the brief isometric contraction during the change of direction is the amortization phase, and finally, reacceleration forms the final concentric phase of the SSC during SAQ.

Sprinting

Sprinting refers to the activity of running at maximal speed and its associated training protocols. Sprinting ability can be improved through a variety of training methods including resistance training as well as sprinting protocols.

Given the requisite intensities required to reach maximal speeds, sprinting is a predominantly anaerobic activity, relying on the ATP-PC and anaerobic-glycolytic systems.

Sprint speed is the result of two factors: stride length and stride rate.

Stride length is the distance covered between two strides. Stride rate is the number of strides taken with respect to time.6

Each individual will have an optimal stride length as determined by their individual biomechanics. If a client has proper sprint form, then increasing stride rate, as opposed to stride length, is the best approach to improve speed.

Research also shows that increased stride rate with a reduced relative stride length reduces the risk of many common running injuries.17

Depending on a client’s training experience, improvements to strength and power brought about via resistance training and plyometric training will result in improved sprint speeds.

As an individual adapts to an initial training program, the training will need to favor speed-specific activities if continued improvements in sprinting ability are desired.

Sprint Mechanics 

Each part of the human body along the kinetic chain has a specific role in allowing the human body to successfully sprint.

The posterior kinetic chain of the body is responsible for hip extension and acts as the driver for linear maximal force production, propelling the body forward.

The anterior kinetic chain aids in triple extension with the quadriceps acting on the knee and hip/pelvic stability through core stabilization.6

More specifically, during a sprint, the foot and ankle act as a spring, absorbing and redistributing energy while running.8 Additionally the plantar flexors aid in forward propulsion, particularly during the acceleration phase.11

The knee works as a shock absorber while sprinting by flexing to absorb impact forces and redistribute them throughout the kinetic chain.9 Additionally, the knee works in concert with the ankles and hips creating triple extension or full extension of the 3 joints. Triple extension is vital in running to optimize stride length and force development.9

The lumbopelvic hip complex produces maximal force through hip extension.10 It further improves sprint performance by flexing to increase knee drive. The greater the knee drive the higher the gravitational force that can be produced upon planting the leg.10

During acceleration, the sprinter will be in a forward leaning position, slowly raising the torso and coming upright as they approach maximal speed.

During the maximal speed phase of a sprint, the head should remain level and in line with the spine.

This positioning allows for elongation of the spine, prevents injury from potential asymmetry, and can improve mental performance.12

Change of Direction and Agility

Change of direction and agility are often thought of as interchangeable terms, but they are distinctly different skills, despite some overlap.

Change of direction refers to the body’s ability to move from one direction to another safely and efficiently. COD can be broken into phases of deceleration (eccentric contraction), plant (isometric contraction), and acceleration (concentric contraction).3

Examples of change of direction include turning the corner at a base or taking an otherwise preplanned route that involves at least one directional change.

Agility involves changing direction in response to a stimulus, such as cutting left in response to a defender cutting right during field sports. Because agility requires rapid decision making before action, it has an entirely separate neurological component.

Additionally, recent meta-analysis draws attention to the fact that individuals in live sport scenarios often change their movement patterns when actively preparing for and responding to opposing players as opposed to performing pre-planned routes.18

The change in movement pattern during live play means that performance on pre-planned change of direction routes may not correspond to relevant neurological agility benefits.

In terms of general fitness training, incorporating a stimulus and response into a change of direction activity is a straightforward way to add the agility component. This type of training can be particularly beneficial for older adults when it comes to reducing the risk of falls as well as many of the other beneficial adaptations associated with resistance training.19

Examples of agility activities for general fitness include ‘stop-and-go’ activities as well as changes of direction to the left or right depending on a sound or color signal displayed by the coach.

Benefits of SAQ Training

Specific SAQ training is designed to challenge neuromuscular systems and body control.13 This training enhances not only speed, agility, and quickness but can lead to the following beneficial adaptations:

  • Increased force and power production14
  • Injury prevention through increased body awareness and reaction time15
  • Increased muscular strength endurance16
  • Reduced risk of falls and other injuries in older adults19
  • Weight loss

SAQ Training Progressions

For the beginner athlete SAQ designs should initially start with 2-3 repetitions of an exercise with lengthy rest between repetitions. The exercises should limit the total number of changes of direction but gradually add variables over time.

  1. Fast feet for 30 seconds rest for 60 seconds for 2-3 sets
  2. One-ins ladder drill 2 repetitions per side for 2 sets resting for 60 seconds between sets.
  3. Two-ins ladder drill 2 repetitions per side for 2 sets resting 60 seconds between sets.

The intermediate fitness participant should have a greater sense of body awareness and overall fitness allowing for more variables to be included into the programming:

  1. In-in-out-out ladder drill for 4-6 repetitions, 2 sets, and up to 60 seconds rest between sets.
  2. Ali shuffle ladder drill for 4-6 repetitions, 2 sets, and up to 60 seconds rest between sets.
  3. T-drill for 3-5 repetitions, 2 sets, and up to 60 seconds rest between sets.
  4. Box drill for 3-5 repetitions, 2 sets, and up to 60 seconds rest between sets.
  5. 5-10-5 drill for 3-5 repetitions, 2 sets, and up to 60 seconds rest between sets.

The advanced fitness participant could use a program that focuses on power production which necessitates a longer rest interval due to the demands place on the body:

  1. Sprints, 40 meters, 4 repetitions, 2 sets with up to 90 seconds rest between sets.
  2. Depth jump to forward run, 5 repetitions, 2 sets with up to 90 seconds rest between sets.
  3. Modified box drill, 4 repetitions, 2-3 sets, with up to 90 seconds rest between sets.
  4. Z-drill, 4 repetitions, 2-3 sets, with up to 90 seconds rest between sets.
  5. T-drill, 4 repetitions, 2-3 sets, with up to 90 seconds rest between sets.

If introducing SAQ training to special groups certain steps should be taken to maximize the benefits of SAQ training.

SAQ programs designed for youth participants carry similar benefits in terms of strength increases and increased body control.14,15 

Specific design considerations include:

  • Gamifying by playing tag or jumping rope to keep the entertainment value high.
  • Consider the youth participant along the lines of the beginner programming by limiting changes of direction/complexity initially and building as body awareness grows.

SAQ programs for seniors carry the same health benefits as all ages however the focus is different. For senior populations the focus is less on utilizing speed and power exercises and more so on training activities that improve activities of daily life. Example exercises include:

  • Hurdle step overs.
  • Cone obstacle courses at a walking pace.
  • Sit-to-stand movements.

SAQ programs designed specifically for weight loss should focus on the high intensity interval aspect of SAQ.

High intensity movements for short periods with adequate recovery have been shown to be an effective weight loss training technique.

Any combination of exercises can be effective following the interval model with a focus of elevating the heart rate then allowing recovery.

SAQ Training Technique for Selected Exercises

A-Skip

Difficulty: Low

Procedure:

  1. Begin standing with feet hip-distance apart and torso upright.
  2. Raise one leg to hip height while skipping on the ball of the opposite foot.
  3. Place raised leg down directly under your center of mass momentarily standing on both feet while they are slightly staggered.
  4. Repeat steps alternating legs while moving forward.

Additional Notes:

  • Maintain posture to avoid forward or backward leans.
  • Engage arms in opposition of elevated legs.
  • Avoid twisting.
  • Find a comfortable pace and rhythm.

Agility Addition:

  • Add stop and go in response to light or sound signal from coach.

Fast Feet

Difficulty: low

Procedure:

  1. Start standing with feet hip width apart.
  2. Pushing through the balls of the feet, run in place quickly.
  3. Continue for desired time or repetitions.

Additional Notes:

  • Can be performed moving forward by taking as many steps as possible over a set distance.
  • Breathe deeply throughout the movement creating a steady rhythm.
  • Use your arms in rhythm with your feet.

Agility Addition:

  • Add stop and go in response to light or sound signal from coach.

Sprints

Difficulty: high

Procedure:

  1. Following a proper warmup and practice sprints at a lower intensity level prepare for the first all out sprint.
  2. Determine start and finish line for the next sprint.
  3. Start position can be standing with feet staggered or in a track stance depending on the goal of the exercise performer.
  4. On the predetermined signal to start, performer takes off in a run at maximum speed and maintains effort until crossing the finish line.

Additional Notes:

  • Run tall with head, neck, and shoulders in line with hips.
  • Arms should move only in the sagittal plane avoiding crossing over the body.
  • Elbows should be bent to 90 degrees.
  • Feet should land directly underneath the torso on the ball of the foot.
  • A high heel lift off and knee pull through should be emphasized.

 Agility Addition:

  • This is not recommended if training for maximal speed.

Deceleration Drills

Deceleration drills have a single focus on the eccentric phase of a movement or the slowing down of a concentric movement. Drills can be implemented across the kinetic chain for any movement that requires a change or stop in momentum. Additionally, the difficulty of deceleration drills can gradually increase by changing or adding planes of movement, progressing from bipedal to single stance activities, or adding external load/forces.

Example exercises include depth jumps, sprint to backpedal, drop and catch drills, and single leg lateral hop to balance.

Depth Jumps to Forward Run

Difficulty: high

Procedure:

  1. Start standing on an elevated surface.
  2. Either step or lightly hop off elevated surface emphasizing landing on two feet in an athletic stance.
  3. Immediately drop into a squat to slow momentum from the drop.
  4. As soon as possible, explode forward into a forward run.

 Additional Notes:

  • Emphasize quick and controlled ranges of motion.
  • Maintain good posture and eyes up while landing.

Agility Addition:

  • Run forward, cut left, or cut right upon landing in response to auditory or visual stimulus.

Speed Ladder Drills

Agility Addition for Speed Ladder Drills: stop and go or change drills in response to light or sound signal from the coach.

One-ins

Difficulty: low

Procedure:

  1. Start standing at the beginning of a speed ladder in an athletic stance with feet hip width apart.
  2. Movement will begin in a controlled run by quickly placing the first foot inside the first box of the speed ladder.
  3. Continue running, placing the opposite foot inside the second box of the speed ladder.
  4. Progress through the ladder in a controlled run placing only one foot inside each box and alternating feet.

Additional Notes:

  • Pump arms in rhythm with the feet.
  • Perform at a fast but controlled pace.
  • Perform drill multiple times alternating starting foot.
Two-ins

Difficulty: low

Procedure:

  1. Start standing at the beginning of a speed ladder in an athletic stance with feet hip width apart. 
  2. Movement will begin in a controlled run by quickly placing the first foot inside the first box of the speed ladder.
  3. Continue running placing the opposite foot inside the same box of the speed ladder so that both feet are inside the first box.
  4. Progress through the ladder in a controlled run placing both feet inside each box.

Additional Notes:

  • Pump arms in rhythm with the feet.
  • Perform at a fast but controlled pace.
  • Perform drill multiple times alternating starting foot.

Side shuffle

 Difficulty: low

 Procedure:

  1. Start standing at the beginning of a speed ladder while facing sideways in an athletic stance with feet hip width apart. 
  2. Movement will begin in a controlled lateral shuffle by quickly placing the first foot inside the first box of the speed ladder.
  3. Continue moving laterally by placing the opposite foot inside the same box of the speed ladder so that both feet are inside the first box.
  4. Progress through the ladder in a controlled shuffle placing both feet inside each box.

Additional Notes:

  • Pump arms in rhythm with the feet.
  • Perform at a fast but controlled pace.
  • Perform drill multiple times alternating starting foot.
  • Emphasize upright posture and eye level staying off the floor.

In-in-out-out

Difficulty: low-medium

Procedure:

  1. Start standing at the beginning of a speed ladder, with feet on either side of the first box. 
  2. Movement will begin by quickly placing the first foot inside the first box of the speed ladder followed immediately by the second foot.
  3. Weight and impact should be on the balls of the feet.
  4. Step forward and out placing the first foot outside of the second box. 
  5. Repeat with the opposite foot.
  6. Progress through the ladder repeating both feet inside each box then outside the next box.

Additional Notes:

  • Pump arms in rhythm with the feet.
  • Perform at a fast but controlled pace.
  • Perform drill multiple times alternating starting foot.
  • Emphasize upright posture and eye level staying off the floor.

Zigzag

Difficulty: low-medium

Procedure:

  1. Start standing at the beginning of a speed ladder, with both feet in front of ladder and off to one side of the first box. 
  2. Movement will begin by quickly placing the foot nearest the ladder inside the first box. The step should be forward and lateral.
  3. Immediately follow with the second foot.
  4. Weight and impact should be on the balls of the feet.
  5. Step first foot laterally outside of the second box. 
  6. Repeat with the opposite foot but instead of planting the second foot only tap the toes on the ground maintaining bodyweight on the first foot.
  7. Move the second foot forward and lateral to plant inside the second box.
  8. Repeat the above steps to progress through the ladder.

Additional Notes:

  • Pump arms in rhythm with the feet.
  • Perform at a fast but controlled pace.
  • Perform drill multiple times alternating starting foot.
  • Emphasize upright posture and eye level staying off the floor.
  • Movements into the ladder should be forward and lateral.
  • Movements out of the ladder should just be lateral.
  • Add a challenge to the drill by having fitness participant perform the move in reverse.

Ali shuffle

Difficulty: medium

Procedure:

  1. Start standing at the beginning of a speed ladder, standing with feet together facing the side of the first box.
  2. Movement will begin by quickly hopping into a staggered stance while placing the lead foot inside the first box. 
  3. Trailing foot should be planted slightly behind the body and outside of the first box.
  4. Perform another hop moving slightly laterally placing lead foot outside of the second box and trailing foot inside of the first box.
  5. Weight and impact should be on the balls of the feet.
  6. Repeat the above steps to progress through the ladder.
  7. Each foot should alternate being placed inside of each box.

Additional Notes:

  • Pump arms in rhythm with the feet.
  • Perform at a fast but controlled pace.
  • Perform drill multiple times alternating starting foot.
  • Emphasize upright posture and eye level staying off the floor.

5-10-5 Drill

Difficulty: medium-high

Procedure:

  1. Start with a 5-10-5 grid. Place 3 sets of cones in a row with each set 5 yards from the last. Each set of cones should be 5 yards apart from its partner.
  2. The fitness participant will start at the middle set of cones with their hand touching the line between the pair of cones.
  3. The fitness participant will choose a direction to begin the drill.
  4. At the start of the drill, the fitness participant will sprint the 5 yards from the middle cones towards the outside set of cones they chose to begin with.
  5. Once they reach the outside cones, they will touch the line between the pair and immediately change direction.
  6. Then they will sprint the full 10 yards to the opposite set of outside cones.
  7. Again, they will touch the line between the second set of outside cones, then immediately change direction and sprint back towards the opposite set of outside cones.
  8. Drill ends when the sprint through the middle cones not stopping to touch the line between the middle pair.

Additional Notes:

  • Perform drill multiple times alternating starting direction.
  • Timing begins when the fitness participant starts moving and ends when they cross the middle cones for the second time.

Agility Addition:

  • Change directions in response to auditory or visual stimuli.

Modified Box Drill

Difficulty: high

Procedure:

  1. Start by creating the modified box grid out of 5 cones. 4 of the cones should create a square that is 5 yards long on each side with the 5th cone being placed in the center of the square grid.
  2. Starting position can vary to adjust difficulty with the start and end drills.
  3. The fitness participant will maintain their hips facing forward throughout the drill and must always repeat the pattern of corner cone-middle cone–corner cone until they cover the entire box.
  4. The participant starts at the front right cone.
  5. At the start of the drill, the fitness participant will reverse diagonal shuffle to the middle cone then forward diagonal shuffle to their starting cone.
  6. Next, they will lateral shuffle to the front left cone and repeat the shuffle to the middle cone.
  7. Upon returning to the front left cone, they will backpedal to the back left cone.
  8. After shuffling to the middle cone and back they will lateral shuffle to the back right cone.
  9. After shuffling to the middle cone and back they will sprint to the front right cone and come to a complete stop at their starting position ending the drill.

Additional Notes:

  • Perform drill multiple times alternating starting position.
  • Timing begins when the fitness participant starts moving and ends when they return to their starting position.

T-Drill

Difficulty: Medium

Procedure:

  1. Start by creating the T-Drill grid utilizing 4 cones or markers. The first cone will be used at the starting and ending point. The second cone should be placed 10 yards away in a straight line from the first cone. The third and fourth cones should be placed 5 yards away to the right and left of the second cone. The four-cone grid should resemble a capital T.
  2. The fitness participant should start in an athletic stance at cone one facing cone two.
  3. When the test starts, the fitness participant will run from cone one to cone two as fast as possible but under control so they can touch cone two with one hand.
  4. The fitness participant will then laterally shuffle to cone three again touching the cone with one hand before changing direction and laterally shuffling to cone four.
  5. After touching cone four, the fitness participant will shuffle back to cone two.
  6. After touching cone two a second time, the fitness participant will backpedal past cone one to complete the test. 

Additional Notes:

  • Perform drill multiple times alternating the order the fitness participant goes left or right.
  • Timing begins when the fitness participant starts moving and ends when they return to their starting position.

Agility Addition:

  • Change directions in response to auditory or visual stimuli.
  • Catch and throw a ball from the coach or partner.

Box Drill

Difficulty: low-medium

Procedure:

  1. Start by creating the box grid out of 4 cones creating a square that is 5 yards long on each side.
  2. Starting position can vary to adjust difficulty with the start and end drills.
  3. The fitness participant will maintain their hips facing forward throughout the drill.
  4. The participant starts at the front right cone.
  5. At the start of the drill, the fitness participant will laterally shuffle to the front left cone.
  6. Next, they will backpedal from the front left cone to the back left cone.
  7. Then they will laterally shuffle from the back left to the back right cone.
  8. Finally, they will sprint from the back right to the front right cone and come to a complete stop at their starting position ending the drill.

Additional Notes:

  • Pump arms in rhythm with the feet.
  • Perform as fast as possible.
  • Timing begins when the fitness participant starts moving and ends when they backpedal passed to their starting position.
  • A common variation includes sprinting the entire course requiring the fitness participant to go around each cone.

Agility Addition:

  • Change directions in response to auditory or visual stimuli.
  • Catch and throw a ball from the coach or partner.

LEFT Drill

Difficulty: medium-high

Procedure:

  1. Start by placing 2 cones 10 yards apart.
  2. Starting position is at the first cone in an athletic stance.
  3. When the test starts the fitness participant will sprint to the far cone and backpedal back to the start.
  4. Then the participant will turn sideways and shuffle to the far cone and back. They should face the same direction both ways so that both the right and left leg lead at some point.
  5. Then the participant will carioca to the far cone and back making sure to face the same way both directions again.
  6. Finally, the fitness participant will sprint to the far cone ending the test.

Additional Notes:

Timing begins when the fitness participant starts moving and ends when they run past the far cone.

Agility Addition:

  • Change directions in response to auditory or visual stimuli.
  • Catch and throw a ball from the coach or partner.

Z-Drill

Difficulty: high

Procedure:

  1. Start by creating a square grid out of 4 cones that measures 5 yards on each side. Place a fifth cone in line with the left side of the square but 5 yards farther away.
  2. Have the fitness participant start on the right side of the square.
  3. At the start, the fitness participant will laterally shuffle from the back right to the back left cone going behind the back left cone.
  4. After shuffling past the back left cone, the participant will change direction without turning around and they will laterally shuffle forward to the front right cone. Their right foot should be leading.
  5. They will shuffle just past the front right cone then change direction and laterally shuffle to the front left cone.
  6. After shuffling slightly passed the front left cone, sprint passed the fifth and final cone.

Additional Notes:

  • Perform drill three times at one starting position then switch for another three repetitions.
  • Timing begins when the fitness participant starts moving and ends when they sprint past the fifth cone.
  • The fitness participant’s hips should face forward the entire drill.

Agility Addition:

  • Change directions in response to auditory or visual stimuli.
  • Catch and throw a ball from the coach or partner.

Summary

SAQ training has proven to be effective for many fitness populations and should be considered as a valuable tool for personal trainers coaching athletes and general fitness clients alike.

The benefits include increased speed, agility, quickness, strength, endurance, body awareness, and with a cumulative overall effect of improved injury prevention. 

The exercises used for SAQ training offer much room for progression for clients of all levels and abilities.

References

  1. Cooke, K; Quinn, A; Sibte, N. Testing Speed and Agility in Elite Tennis Players. Strength and Conditioning Journal: August 2011 – Volume 33 – Issue 4 – p 69-72
  2. Kawamori, N; Nosaka, K; Newton, R. Relationships Between Ground Reaction Impulse and Sprint Acceleration Performance in Team Sport Athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research: March 2013 – Volume 27 – Issue 3 – p 568-573
  3. Spiteri, T; Newton, R; Binetti, M; Hart, N; Sheppard, J; Nimphius, S. Mechanical Determinants of Faster Change of Direction and Agility Performance in Female Basketball Athletes. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research: August 2015 – Volume 29 – Issue 8 – p 2205-2214
  4. Bloomfield, J; Polman, R: O’Donoghue, P. Physical Demands of Different Positions in FA Premier League Soccer. J Sports Sci Med. 2007 Mar 1;6(1):63-70.
  5. Walanker, P; Shetty, J. Speed, Agility, and Quickness Training: A Review. International Journal of Physical Education, Sports, and Health. 2020; 7(6): 157-159  
  6. Barr, M; Sheppard, J; Newton, R.  Sprinting Kinematics of Elite Rugby Players. Journal of Australian Strength and Conditioning. 2013; 21(4): 14-20.
  7. Wild, J; et al. A Biomechanical Comparison of Accelerative and Maximum Velocity Sprinting: Specific Strength Training Considerations. Professional Strength and Conditioning 21 (2011): 23-37.
  8. Lai, A; Schache, A; Brown, N; Pandy, M. Human ankle plantar flexor muscle-tendon mechanics and energetics during maximum acceleration sprinting. J R Soc Interface. 2016 Aug;13(121):20160391.
  9. Morin, J; Gimenez, P; Edouard, P; Arnal, P; Jiménez-Reyes, P; Samozino, P; Brughelli, M; Mendiguchia, J. Sprint Acceleration Mechanics: The Major Role of Hamstrings in Horizontal Force Production. Front Physiol. 2015 Dec 24;6:404.
  10. Sado, N; Yoshioka, S; Fukashiro, S. Three-dimensional kinetic function of the lumbo-pelvic-hip complex during block start. PLoS One. 2020 Mar 12;15(3):e0230145.
  11. Sabrina, S; Stephen, J. Built for speed: musculoskeletal structure and sprinting ability. J Exp Biol 15 November 2009; 212 (22): 3700–3707.
  12. Almasi, M. Investigating the Effect of Head Movement during Running and Its Results in Record Time Using Computer Vision. International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, 2018, 13(11), 9433-9436.
  13. Azmi, K; Kusnanik, N. Effect on Exercise Program Speed, Agility, and Quickness (SAQ) in Improving Speed, Agility, and Acceleration. 2018 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. 947 012043
  14. Jovanovic, M; Sporis, G; Omrcen, D; Fiorentini, F. Effects of Speed, Agility, Quickness Training Method on Power Performance in Elite Soccer Players. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research: May 2011 – Volume 25 – Issue 5 – p 1285-1292
  15. Devaraju, K. Effect Of SAQ Training On Vital Capacity Among Hockey Players. Journal Impact Factor. 2014 Jan;5(1):102-5.
  16. Arjunan, R. Effect of speed, agility and quickness (SA Q) training on selected physical fitness variables among school soccer players. International Journal of Research in Humanities, Arts and Literature (IMPACT: IJRHAL). 2015;3(10).
  17. Schubert AG, Kempf J, Heiderscheit BC. Influence of stride frequency and length on running mechanics: a systematic review. Sports Health. 2014;6(3):210-217. https://doi.org/10.1177/1941738113508544
  18. Young W, Rayner R, Talpey S. It’s Time to Change Direction on Agility Research: a Call to Action. Sports Med Open. 2021;7(1):12. Published 2021 Feb 12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40798-021-00304-y
  19. Lichtenstein E, Morat M, Roth R, Donath L, Faude O. Agility-based exercise training compared to traditional strength and balance training in older adults: a pilot randomized trial. PeerJ. 2020;8:e8781. Published 2020 Apr 14. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.8781

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